An assessment of khat consumption habit and its linkage to household economies and work culture: The case of Harar city


Autoři: Zerihun Girma Gudata aff001;  Logan Cochrane aff002;  Gutema Imana aff003
Působiště autorů: Haramaya University, CHAMPS Ethiopia, Harar, Ethiopia aff001;  Institute of Policy and Development Research, Hawassa University, Hawasa, Ethiopia aff002;  Haramaya University, Department of Sociology, Harar, Ethiopia aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224606

Souhrn

Background

This study investigates khat consumption habits and its linkage to the economy of a household and works culture in its ‘homeland,’ Harar. Khat consumption habit includes practices that are performed before, during, and after consuming khat. In Harar, it has permeated the local economy, social, political and spiritual lives. To evaluate how khat consumption habit is related to the economy of a household, this study compares the living standard and characteristics of khat consumers and non-consumers.

Methods

Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. Cluster sampling and lottery methods were used to identify respondents. Data were gathered through individual interviews and non-participant observation.

Results

The results of the study indicate that khat consumption habit affects the economy of the consumer household by negatively influencing their income usage and time management. Consumer households have significant, additional burdens on their income and time. The average monthly expenditure of a household on khat ceremonies is 1,800 ETB (30% of their income) and consumers spend an average of 112.5 hours monthly on khat related activities only. The habit of khat consumption also negatively associated with the work culture of consumers, as they leave for lunch break early and come back to work late.

Conclusion

Khat consumption habit does have a linkage to the bad economic situation of consumer households. It places a significant financial and time burdens on individuals, and as a result society. The work and saving culture of khat consumers are negatively affected. Khat consumption forces many into a cycle of borrowing and indebtedness. Concerned bodies should not underestimate the impacts of khat consumption on individuals and society.

Klíčová slova:

Economics – Employment – Ethiopia – Fathers – Habits – Human families – Salaries – Khat


Zdroje

1. Gebissa E. Khat: Is It More Like Coffee or Cocaine? Criminalizing a Commodity, Targeting a Community. SM 2012; 2(2): 204–212, 2012.

2. Gebissa E. Khat in the Horn of Africa: Historical Perspectives and Current Trends. Journal of ethnopharmacology 2010; 132(3):607–14 doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.01.063 20227478

3. Burton F. R. First Footsteps in East Africa. 1856. London: Longman, Brown Green, and Longman.

4. Carrier N. 'Miraa is Cool'. the cultural importance of miraa (khat) for Tigania and Igembe youth in Kenya. Journal of African Cultural Studies, Vol. 17, No. 2 (Dec., 2005), pp. 201–218

5. Cochrane L, O’Regan D. Legal harvest and illegal trade: Trends, challenges, and options in khat production in Ethiopia. International Journal of Drug Policy 2016; 30: 27–34 doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2016.02.009 26949190

6. Gebrie A, Alebel A, Zegeye A, Tesfaye B. Prevalence and predictors of khat chewing among Ethiopian university students: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 2018; 13(4): e0195718. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195718 29649253

7. Haile D, Lakew Y. Khat Chewing Practice and Associated Factors among Adults in Ethiopia: Further Analysis Using the 2011 Demographic and Health Survey. PLoS ONE 2015; 10(6): e0130460. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130460 26090658

8. Ambaye G. Production and consumption trends of khat in Ethiopia: a big business or a big worry. Advance in Agriculture, Science and Engineering Research. Vol 2(10) Oct: 414–427, 2012 ISSN: 2276-6723.

9. Carrier N. Is Miraa a Drug?: Categorizing Kenyan Khat. Substance Use & Misuse; 2009: Vol 43, No 6 https://doi.org/10.1080/10826080701739016

10. Carrier N. Kenyan Khat: The Social Life of a Stimulant. African Social Studies Series, Volume: 15; 2007, https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004156593.i-288

11. Sheikh YO, Jenkins A, van Regteren MA, Harvey T, Chris H, Tohow A, Chopra P, Castle D. Khat Use: What Is the Problem and What Can Be Done? BioMed Research International, Volume 2015, Article ID 472302, 7 pages, http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/472302

12. Gebissa E. Scourge of Life or an Economic Lifeline? Public Discourses on Khat (Catha edulis) in Ethiopia. Substance Use & Misuse;2008, 43(6):784–802

13. Mekuria W. Public discourse on Khat (Catha edulis) production in Ethiopia: Review. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development 2018; 10(10): 192–200

14. Getahun A, Krikorian A. D. Chat: Coffee's Rival from Harar, Ethiopia. I. Botany, Cultivation and Use. Economic Botany 1973; 27(4): 353–377.

15. Dhaifalaha I, Santavy J. Khat Habit and Its Health Effect. A Natural Amphetamine, Biomed. Papers; 2004, 148(1), 11–15

16. WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence. Assessment of khat (Catha edulis Forsk) 34th ECDD 2006/4.4.

17. Havell C. Khat use in Somali, Ethiopian and Yemeni communities in England: issues and solutions. A report by Turning Point, 2004.

18. Carrier N, Klantschnig G. Quasilegality: khat, cannabis and Africa’s drug Laws. Third World Quarterly; 2018, 39:2, 350–365, doi: 10.1080/01436597.2017.1368383

19. Cochrane L, Negash G. Developing Policy in Contested Space: Khat in Ethiopia (143–162). In Asnake K, Zerihun M. The Multiple Faces of Khat. 2017; Forum for Social Studies.

20. Cox G, Rampes H. Adverse effects of khat: A review. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 2003; 9(6): 456–463.

21. Hassan ANGM, Gunaid AA, Murray-Lyon IM. Khat (Catha edulis): Health Aspects of Khat Chewing. Eastern Mediterranean V Healthy Journal 2007; 13(3): 706–718.

22. Reda AA, Moges A, Biadgilign S, Wondmagegn BY. Prevalence and Determinants of Khat (Catha edulis) Chewing among High School Students in Eastern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Open-access article, PLoS ONE; 2012, 7(3). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032839

23. Girmay A, G/Mariam A, Yazachew M. Khat use and Risky Sexual Behavior among Youth in Asendabo Town, South Western Ethiopia. Ethiopia J Health Sci.;2007, Vol. 17 No. 1.

24. Odenwald M, Hinkel H, Schauer E, Neuner F, Schauer M, R Elbert T, Rockstroh B. The Consumption of Khat and Other Drugs in Somali Combatants: A Cross-Sectional Study. PLoS Med; 2007, 4(12).

25. Armstrong EG. Research Note: Crime, Chemicals, and Culture: on the Complexity of Khat. Journal of Drug Issues 2008; 38(2): 631–648.

26. Gebissa E. Leaf of Allah: Khat and Agricultural transformation in Hararge, Ethiopia 1875–1991. 2004; Oxford: James curry Ltd.

27. Teferra S, Hanlon C, Alem A, Jacobsson L, Shibre T. Khat chewing in persons with severe mental illness in Ethiopia: A qualitative study exploring perspectives of patients and caregivers, Transcultural Psychiatry; 2011, 48: 455 doi: 10.1177/1363461511408494 21911510

28. Gebissa E ed. Taking the Place of Food: Khat in Ethiopia. 2010. Asmara: Red Sea Press.

29. Anderson D, Beckerleg S, Hailu D, Klein A: The Khat Controversy: Stimulating the debate on Drugs. 2007. Oxford: Berg.

30. Central Statistical Authority. The 2011 Population and Housing Census Projection Figure of Ethiopia: Results for Harari Regional State. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Office of the Population and Housing Census Commission: Addis Ababa. 2011, Vol. 1.

31. Annoni RM, Broers B, Khan R, Benguettat D, Khazaal Y, Fabio D Z. Khat Use: Lifestyle or Addiction? Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 2009; 41(1): 1–10. doi: 10.1080/02791072.2009.10400669 19455904

32. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Available online: https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/teaching-packets/neurobiology-drug-addiction/section-iii-action-heroin-morphine/8-definition-dependence. Nov.2018

33. Gelaw Y, Haile-Amlak A. Khat chewing and its socio-demographic correlates among the staff of Jimma University. Ethiop.J.Health Dev 2004; 18(3): 179–184.

34. Gebissa E. The Culture of Khat. OGINA, Oromo arts in Diaspora. Available online: http://www.ogina.org/issue5/issue5_culture_of_khat_ezekiel.html. April 2013

35. Hailu TF, Aune JB. Khat Expansion in the Ethiopian Highlands Effects on the Farming System in Habro District. Mountain Research and Development 2003; 23(2): 185–189


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 11