1. Abrahams N, Jewkes R, Martin LJ, Mathews S, Vetten L, Lombard C. Mortality of women from intimate partner violence in South Africa: a national epidemiological study. Violence and victims. 2009;24(4):546–56. doi: 10.1891/0886-6708.24.4.546 19694357
2. Salcioglu E, Urhan S, Pirinccioglu T, Aydin S. Anticipatory fear and helplessness predict PTSD and depression in domestic violence survivors. Psychological trauma: theory, research, practice, and policy. 2017;9(1):117.
3. Campbell JC. Health consequences of intimate partner violence. The lancet. 2002;359(9314):1331–6.
4. Wolford-Clevenger C, Febres J, Elmquist J, Zapor H, Brasfield H, Stuart GL. Prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among court-referred male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. Psychological Services. 2015;12(1):9. doi: 10.1037/a0037338 24979071
5. Koenig MA, Lutalo T, Zhao F, Nalugoda F, Wabwire-Mangen F, Kiwanuka N, et al. Domestic violence in rural Uganda: evidence from a community-based study. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2003;81:53–60. 12640477
6. Carrell SE, Hoekstra ML. Externalities in the classroom: How children exposed to domestic violence affect everyone's kids. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics. 2010;2(1):211–28.
7. Stith SM, Rosen KH, Middleton KA, Busch AL, Lundeberg K, Carlton RP. The intergenerational transmission of spouse abuse: A meta‐analysis. Journal of Marriage and Family. 2000;62(3):640–54.
8. Hall D, Lynch MA. Violence begins at home: Domestic strife has lifelong effects on children. British Medical Journal Publishing Group; 1998.
9. Katz E. Beyond the physical incident model: How children living with domestic violence are harmed by and resist regimes of coercive control. Child Abuse Review. 2016;25(1):46–59.
10. Hindin MJ, Kishor S, Ansara DL. Intimate partner violence among couples in 10 DHS countries: predictors and health outcomes. 2008.
11. De Wet N. Domestic violence and child health outcomes in Zimbabwe 2009.
12. Ramsay J, Richardson J, Carter YH, Davidson LL, Feder G. Should health professionals screen women for domestic violence? Systematic review. Bmj. 2002;325(7359):314. doi: 10.1136/bmj.325.7359.314 12169509
13. Vaivada T, Gaffey MF, Das JK, Bhutta ZA. Evidence-based interventions for improvement of maternal and child nutrition in low-income settings: what's new? Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care. 2017;20(3):204–10.
14. Ornoy A, Reece EA, Pavlinkova G, Kappen C, Miller RK. Effect of maternal diabetes on the embryo, fetus, and children: congenital anomalies, genetic and epigenetic changes and developmental outcomes. Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews. 2015;105(1):53–72.
15. Christian P, Mullany LC, Hurley KM, Katz J, Black RE, editors. Nutrition and maternal, neonatal, and child health. Seminars in Perinatology; 2015: Elsevier.
16. Merchant KM, Kurz KM. Women’s nutrition through the life cycle: social and biological vulnerabilities. The Health Of Women: Routledge; 2018. p. 63–90.
17. de Groot R, Handa S, Ragno LP, Spadafora T. Child Malnutrition, Consumption Growth, Maternal Care and Price Shocks: New Evidence from Northern Ghana. 2017.
18. Nisbett N, van den Bold M, Gillespie S, Menon P, Davis P, Roopnaraine T, et al. Community-level perceptions of drivers of change in nutrition: evidence from South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Global food security. 2017;13:74–82.
19. Wahlqvist ML, Lee M-S. Regional food culture and development. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition. 2007;16(S1):2–7.
20. Tovée MJ, Swami V, Furnham A, Mangalparsad R. Changing perceptions of attractiveness as observers are exposed to a different culture. Evolution and Human behavior. 2006;27(6):443–56.
21. Tomita A, Labys CA, Burns JK. Depressive symptoms prior to pregnancy and infant low birth weight in South Africa. Maternal and child health journal. 2015;19(10):2179–86. doi: 10.1007/s10995-015-1732-z 25673370
22. Byass P, Kabudula CW, Mee P, Ngobeni S, Silaule B, Gómez-Olivé FX, et al. A successful failure: missing the MDG4 target for under-five mortality in South Africa. PLoS medicine. 2015;12(12):e1001926. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001926 26694732
23. Chola L, McGee S, Tugendhaft A, Buchmann E, Hofman K. Scaling up family planning to reduce maternal and child mortality: the potential costs and benefits of modern contraceptive use in South Africa. PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0130077. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130077 26076482
24. Parashar UD, Burton A, Lanata C, Boschi-Pinto C, Shibuya K, Steele D, et al. Global mortality associated with rotavirus disease among children in 2004. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2009;200(Supplement_1):S9–S15.
25. Sankar MJ, Sinha B, Chowdhury R, Bhandari N, Taneja S, Martines J, et al. Optimal breastfeeding practices and infant and child mortality: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Acta paediatrica. 2015;104:3–13. doi: 10.1111/apa.13147 26249674
26. Abrahams D. Local economic development in South Africa: A useful tool for sustainable development. Local Economic Development in the Changing World: Routledge; 2018. p. 131–45.
27. Gartner LM, Morton J, Lawrence RA, Naylor AJ, O'Hare D, Schanler RJ, et al. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 2005 Feb;115(2):496–506. doi: 10.1542/peds.2004-2491 15687461
28. Black RE, Brown KH, Becker S, Alim AA, Huq I. Longitudinal studies of infectious diseases and physical growth of children in rural Bangladesh: II. Incidence of diarrhea and association with known pathogens. American journal of epidemiology. 1982 Mar 1;115(3):315–24. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a113308 6278925
29. Statistics SA. Victims of Crime Survey, 2016/17. Pretoria: South Africa: Statistics South Africa, 2018.
30. Gass JD, Stein DJ, Williams DR, Seedat S. Intimate partner violence, health behaviours, and chronic physical illness among South African women. South African Medical Journal. 2010;100(9):582–5.] doi: 10.7196/samj.4274 20822646
32. Mesatywa NJ. Validating the evidence of violence in partner relationships with regard to Xhosa African women. Social Work. 2014;50(2):235–57.
33. Grimley DM, Riley GE, Bellis JM, Prochaska JO. Assessing the stages of change and decision-making for contraceptive use for the prevention of pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Health Education Quarterly. 1993 Dec;20(4):455–70. doi: 10.1177/109019819302000407 8307766
34. Doherty T, Sanders D, Jackson D, Swanevelder S, Lombard C, Zembe W, et al. Early cessation of breastfeeding amongst women in South Africa: an area needing urgent attention to improve child health. BMC pediatrics. 2012 Dec;12(1):105.
35. Silverman JG, Decker MR, Reed E, Raj A. Intimate partner violence around the time of pregnancy: association with breastfeeding behavior. Journal of women's health. 2006 Oct 1;15(8):934–40. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2006.15.934 17087617
36. Murtagh L, Moulton AD. Working mothers, breastfeeding, and the law. American Journal of Public Health. 2011 Feb;101(2):217–23. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2009.185280 21164100
37. Amoateng AY, Heaton TB, Kalule-Sabiti I. Living arrangements in South Africa. Families and households in post-apartheid South Africa: Socio-demographic perspectives. 2007:43–59.
38. Siqwana-Ndulo N. Rural African family structure in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Journal of comparative family studies. 1998 Jul 1:407–17.
39. Sarkar NN. The impact of intimate partner violence on women's reproductive health and pregnancy outcome. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2008 Jan 1;28(3):266–71. doi: 10.1080/01443610802042415 18569465
40. Barbarin OA, Richter L, DeWet T. Exposure to violence, coping resources, and psychological adjustment of South African children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 2001 Jan;71(1):16–25. doi: 10.1037/0002-94220.127.116.11 11271713