Application of CPI cutoff value based on parentage testing of duos and trios typed by four autosomal kits

Autoři: Hongmei Gao aff001;  Chang Wang aff001;  Ruxia Zhang aff003;  Hanyang Wu aff004;  Shanhui Sun aff001;  Dongjie Xiao aff001;  Yunshan Wang aff001;  Maoxiu Zhang aff001
Působiště autorů: Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China aff001;  Jinan Di’en Forensic Institute of Jinan Central Hospital, Jinan, Shandong, China aff002;  Department of Nursing, Shandong Medical College, Jinan, Shandong, China aff003;  Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225174


In this study, we analyzed the application of four autosomal kits and the sensitivity of the combined paternity index (CPI) cutoff value (CPI≥10000) in parentage testing. First, 1442 real trios and 803 real duos were tested using the Goldeneye 25A kit. The Goldeneye 25A kit covers the autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci of the other three kits, so we calculated the CPI value of every case for the four kits. Second, three complex close relative kinship cases were also analyzed to evaluate the application of the CPI cutoff value. The CPI values of all trio cases were higher than 10000 using the four kits; the CPI values of all duo cases were higher than 10000 using the Goldeneye 25A kit; and the CPI values of a portion of the duo cases were lower than 10000 using the other three kits. In the three complex close relative cases, the alleged father or mother was not excluded using 40 autosomal STRs. Adding X chromosome short tandem repeats (X-STR) and samples of biological fathers or mothers, the conclusions were confirmed. The four kits were adequate to draw conclusions in the trio cases; the Goldeneye 25A Kit was adequate to draw conclusions in the duo cases; and the other three kits were not sufficient for a portion of the duo cases. The CPI cutoff value was sensitive for real trio and duo cases. In complex close relative kinship cases, high CPI values may result in false conclusions.

Klíčová slova:

DNA extraction – Forensics – Genetic loci – China – X chromosomes – Y chromosomes – Tandem repeats – Pentas


1. Hallenberg C, Moiling N. A report of the 1997, 1998 and 1999 Patemity Testing Workshops of the English Speaking Working Group of the Intemational Society for Forensic Genetic. Forensic Sci Int. 2001; 116(1): 23–33. doi: 10.1016/s0379-0738(00)00351-0 11118749

2. Wenk RE, Houtz T, Chiafari FA. Matemal typing and test suficiency in parentage analyses. Transfusion. 2006; 46(2): 199–203. doi: 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2006.00701.x 16441595

3. Birus I, Marcikić M, Lauc D, Dzijan S, Lauc G. How high should paternity index be for reliable identification of war victims by DNA typing? Croat Med J. 2003; 44(3): 322–326. 12808726

4. Kayser M, Roewer L, Hedman M, Henke L, Henke J, Brauer S, et al. Characteristics and frequency of germline mutations at microsatellite loci from the human Y chromosome, as revealed by direct observation in father/son pairs. Am J Hum Genet. 2000; 66(5): 1580–88. doi: 10.1086/302905 10762544

5. Szibor R, Krawczak M, Hering S, Edelmann J, Kuhlisch E, Krause D. Use of X-linked markers for forensic purposes. Int J Legal Med. 2003; 117(2): 67–74. 12690502

6. Szibor R. X-chromosomal markers: past, present and future. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2007; 1(2): 93–99. doi: 10.1016/j.fsigen.2007.03.003 Epub 2007 Apr 27. 19083736

7. Chengtao Li, Li Li, Yiping Hou, Yacheng Liu, Hongyu Sun, Di Lu, et al. Specification of Parentage Testing (in China) SF/Z JD0105001–2016. 2016.

8. Walsh PS, Metzger DA, Higuchi R. Chelex 100 as a medium for simple extraction of DNA for PCR-based typing from forensic material. Biotechniques. 1991; 10(4): 506–513. 1867860

9. Zhang MX, Han SY, Gao HM, Sun SH, Xiao DJ, Liu Y, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of 19 STR loci in Shandong Han population. Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2013; 29(6): 440–43, 446. 24665616

10. Gao HM, Wang C, Zhang SS, Xiao DJ, Sun SH, Wang YS, et al. Application of Multiple Kits in Special Parentage Testing Cases. Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2018; 34(4): 405–410. doi: 10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2018.04.013 Epub 2018 Aug 25. 30465408

11. Tong da Y, Wu XY, Sun HY, Zhao H, Lu HL. Polymorphism analysis and evaluation of nine non-CODIS STR loci in the Han population of Southern China. Ann Hum Biol. 2010; 37(6): 820–826. doi: 10.3109/03014461003660096 Epub 2010 May 7. 20450383

12. Lee HS, Lee JW, Han GR, Hwang JJ. Motherless case in paternity testing. Forensic Sci Int. 2000; 114(2): 57–65. doi: 10.1016/s0379-0738(00)00293-0 10967247

13. Xiao C, Wang Y, Liao F, Yi S, Huang D. Microdeletion at 8q24.13 rather than multistep microsatellite mutation resulting in the genetic inconsistency at the D8S1179 locus in a true trio. Int J Legal Med. 2019; 133(4): 999–1006. doi: 10.1007/s00414-018-1900-y Epub 2018 Jul 25. 30046885

14. Katsumata Y, Katsumata R, Yamamoto T, Tamaki K. Estimating probabilities and dealing with mutations in paternity testing—verification of DNA testing with commercially available STR kits. Nihon Hoigaku Zasshi. 2001; 55(2): 205–216. 11605415

15. Liu QL, Chen YF, Zang Y, Liu KY, Zhao H, Lu DJ. Two loci concurrent mutations in non-exclusion parentage cases using 19 STR profiles. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2018; 35: 73–76. doi: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2018.09.012 Epub 2018 Sep 24. 30278386

16. Dogan M, Kara U, Emre R, Fung WK, Canturk KM. Two brothers' alleged paternity for a child: who is the father? Mol Biol Rep. 2015; 42(6): 1025–1027. doi: 10.1007/s11033-014-3839-5 Epub 2014 Nov 22. 25416555

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 11