Deep brain stimulation restores the glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission and plasticity to normal levels in kindled rats

Autoři: Samireh Ghafouri aff001;  Yaghoub Fathollahi aff001;  Saeed Semnanian aff001;  Amir Shojaei aff001;  Azam Asgari aff001;  Azin Ebrahim Amini aff003;  Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran aff001;  Département de Neurosciences, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada aff002;  Department of Biomaterial and Biomedical Engineering (IBBME), Faculty of applied sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada aff003;  Institute for Brain Sciences and Cognition, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224834



The precise effect of low frequency stimulation (LFS) as a newly postulated, anticonvulsant therapeutic approach on seizure-induced changes in synaptic transmission has not been completely determined.


In this study, the LFS effect on impaired, synaptic plasticity in kindled rats was investigated.


Hippocampal kindled rats received LFS (4 trials consisting of one train of 200 monophasic square waves, 0.1 ms pulse duration, 1 Hz) on four occasions. LTP induction was evaluated using whole-cell recordings of evoked excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs and IPSPs respectively) in CA1 neurons in hippocampal slices. In addition, the hippocampal excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs and IPSCs), and the gene expression of NR2A, GluR2 and γ2 were evaluated.


LTP induction was attenuated in excitatory and inhibitory synapses in hippocampal slices of kindled rats. When LFS was applied in kindled animals, LTP was induced in EPSPs and IPSPs. Moreover, LFS increased and decreased the threshold intensities of EPSCs and IPSCs respectively. In kindled animals, NR2A gene expression increased, while γ2 gene expression decreased. GluR2 gene expression did not significantly change. Applying LFS in kindled animals mitigated these changes: No significant differences were observed in NR2A, γ2 and GluR2 gene expression in the kindled+LFS and control groups.


The application of LFS in kindled animals restored LTP induction in both EPSPs and IPSPs, and returned the threshold intensity for induction of EPSCs, IPSCs and gene expression to similar levels as controls.

Klíčová slova:

Functional electrical stimulation – Gamma-aminobutyric acid – Gene expression – Neurons – Synapses – Synaptic plasticity – Neurotransmission – Anticonvulsants


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