Olfactory screening of Parkinson’s Disease patients and healthy subjects in China and Germany: A study of cross-cultural adaptation of the Sniffin’ Sticks 12-identification test

Autoři: Elmar H. Pinkhardt aff001;  Huijing Liu aff002;  Di Ma aff003;  Jing Chen aff003;  Adrian Pachollek aff001;  Martin S. Kunz aff001;  Jan Kassubek aff001;  Albert C. Ludolph aff001;  Yining Huang aff003;  Haibo Chen aff002;  G. Bernhard Landwehrmeyer aff001;  Zhaoxia Wang aff003;  Wen Su aff002
Působiště autorů: Ulm University, Department of Neurology, Ulm, Germany aff001;  Neurology Department, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, China, Dong Dan, Beijing, China aff002;  Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224331



Olfactory testing is a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Although fast and easy to use, the high intercultural variability of odor detection limits the world-wide use of the most common test sets.


The aim of this study was to test one of the most commonly used olfactory tests (Sniffin’ Sticks 12-identification test) in an adapted version for a Chinese population of healthy subjects and PD patients.


For this purpose, cohorts of 39 Chinese and 41 German PD patients as well as 70 Chinese and 100 German healthy subjects have been examined both with the original and the adapted version of the Sniffin’ Sticks test, the latter being designed according to the regional culture.


The adapted Chinese version of the Sniffin’ Sticks 12 identification test proved to discriminate Chinese PD patients from controls with a high specificity but relatively low sensitivity. Yet not all odor exchanges would have been necessary as the original odors including liquorice and coffee showed an equally high identification rate in the Chinese and German cohorts.


The results showed that the newly adapted test could be used as a screening test for PD related olfactory dysfunction in a Chinese population. However further investigation will be necessary to optimize the selection of odors for the Chinese version of the test.

Klíčová slova:

Culture – German people – Germany – Chinese people – Odorants – Olfactory bulb – Parkinson disease – Patients


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2019 Číslo 11