Contactless monitoring of heart and respiratory rate in anesthetized pigs using infrared thermography


Autoři: Carina Barbosa Pereira aff001;  Henriette Dohmeier aff001;  Janosch Kunczik aff001;  Nadine Hochhausen aff001;  René Tolba aff002;  Michael Czaplik aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, NRW, Germany aff001;  Institute for Laboratory Animal Science and Experimental Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, NRW, Germany aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224747

Souhrn

Pig experiments have played an important role in medical breakthroughs during the last century. In fact, pigs are one of the major animal species used in translational research, surgical models and procedural training due to their anatomical and physiological similarities to humans. To ensure high bioethical standards in animal trials, new directives have been implemented, among others, to refine the procedures and minimize animals’ stress and pain. This paper presents a contactless motion-based approach for monitoring cardiorespiratory signals (heart rate and respiratory rate) in anesthetized pigs using infrared thermography. Heart rate monitoring is estimated by measuring the vibrations (precordial motion) of the chest caused by the heartbeat. Respiratory rate, in turn, is computed by measuring the mechanical chest movements that accompany the respiratory cycle. To test the feasibility of this approach, thermal videos of 17 anesthetized pigs were acquired and analyzed. A high agreement between infrared thermography and a gold standard (electrocardiography and capnography-derived respiratory rate) was achieved. The mean absolute error averaged 3.43 ± 3.05 bpm and 0.27 ± 0.48 breaths/min for heart rate and respiratory rate, respectively. In sum, infrared thermography is capable of assessing cardiorespiratory signals in pigs. Future work should be conducted to evaluate infared thermography capability of capturing information for long term monitoring of research animals in a diverse set of facilities.

Klíčová slova:

Algorithms – Animal welfare – Cameras – Electrocardiography – Heart rate – principal component analysis – Swine – Vibration


Zdroje

1. Festing S, Wilkinson R. The ethics of animal research. Talking Point on the use of animals in scientific research. EMBO Rep. 2007;8(6):526–530. doi: 10.1038/sj.embor.7400993 17545991

2. Ison SH, Clutton RE, Di Giminiani P, Rutherford KMD. A Review of Pain Assessment in Pigs. Front Vet Sci. 2016;3. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2016.00108 27965968

3. Exner C, Bode H, Blumer K, Giese C. Animal Experiments in Research Eds. Senate Commission on Animal Protection and Experimentation. Bonn: Lemmens Medien GmbH; 2007.

4. Russell WMS, Burch RL. The principles of humane experimental technique. London: Methuen; 1959.

5. Science, Medicine, and Animals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 1991.

6. Pereira CB, Kunczik J, Zieglowski L, Tolba R, Abdelrahman A, Zechner D, et al. Remote Welfare Monitoring of Rodents Using Thermal Imaging. Sensors (Basel). 2018;18(11). doi: 10.3390/s18113653

7. Garbey M, Sun N, Merla A, Pavlidis I. Contact-Free Measurement of Cardiac Pulse Based on the Analysis of Thermal Imagery. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. 2007;54(8):1418–1426. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2007.891930 17694862

8. Gonález-Sánchez C, Fraile JC, Pérez-Turiel J, Damm E, Schneider JG, Zimmermann H, et al. Capacitive Sensing for Non-Invasive Breathing and Heart Monitoring in Non-Restrained, Non-Sedated Laboratory Mice. Sensors. 2016;16(7):1052. doi: 10.3390/s16071052

9. Mutlu K, Rabell JE, Martin Del Olmo P, Haesler S. IR thermography-based monitoring of respiration phase without image segmentation. J Neurosci Methods. 2018;301:1–8. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2018.02.017 29501561

10. Pereira CB, Czaplik M, Blanik N, Rossaint R, Blazek V, Leonhardt S. Contact-free monitoring of circulation and perfusion dynamics based on the analysis of thermal imagery. Biomed Opt Express. 2014;5(4):1075–1089. doi: 10.1364/BOE.5.001075 24761290

11. Knobel RB, Guenther BD, Rice HE. Thermoregulation and thermography in neonatal physiology and disease. Biol Res Nurs. 2011;13(3):274–282. doi: 10.1177/1099800411403467 21586499

12. Otsu N. A Threshold Selection Method from Gray-Level Histograms. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. 1979;9(1):62–66. doi: 10.1109/TSMC.1979.4310076

13. Shi J, Tomasi C. Good features to track. In: 1994 Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition; 1994. p. 593–600.

14. Soerensen DD, Clausen S, Mercer JB, Pedersen LJ. Determining the emissivity of pig skin for accurate infrared thermography. Comput Electron Agr. 2014;109: 52–58. doi: 10.1016/j.compag.2014.09.003

15. Eisenberg ME, Givony D, Levin R. Acoustic respiration rate and pulse oximetry-derived respiration rate: a clinical comparison study. J Clin Monit Comput. 2018;. doi: 10.1007/s10877-018-0222-4

16. Abbas AK, Heimann K, Jergus K, Orlikowsky T, Leonhardt S. Neonatal non-contact respiratory monitoring based on real-time infrared thermography. Biomed Eng Online. 2011;10:93. doi: 10.1186/1475-925X-10-93 22243660

17. Vainer BG. A Novel High-Resolution Method for the Respiration Rate and Breathing Waveforms Remote Monitoring. Ann Biomed Eng. 2018;46(7):960–971. doi: 10.1007/s10439-018-2018-6 29619590

18. Zhao F, Li M, Qian Y, Tsien JZ. Remote Measurements of Heart and Respiration Rates for Telemedicine. PLOS ONE. 2013;8(10):e71384. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071384 24115996

19. Blanik N, Pereira C, Czaplik M, Blazek V, Leonhardt S. Remote Photopletysmographic Imaging of Dermal Perfusion in a Porcine Animal Model. In: Goh J, editor. The 15th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering. IFMBE Proceedings. Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 92–95.

20. Varanini M, Berardi PC, Conforti F, Micalizzi M, Neglia D, Macerata A. Cardiac and respiratory monitoring through non-invasive and contactless radar technique. In: 2008 Computers in Cardiology; 2008. p. 149–152.

21. Martínez-Miró S, Tecles F, Ramón M, Escribano D, Hernández F, Madrid J, et al. Causes, consequences and biomarkers of stress in swine: an update. BMC Vet Res. 2016;12.


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 11