Prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbiomes associated with blooms of the ichthyotoxic dinoflagellate Cochlodinium (Margalefidinium) polykrikoides in New York, USA, estuaries

Autoři: Theresa K. Hattenrath-Lehmann aff001;  Jennifer Jankowiak aff001;  Florian Koch aff001;  Christopher J. Gobler aff001
Působiště autorů: Stony Brook University, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Southampton, NY, United States of America aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223067


While harmful algal blooms caused by the ichthyotoxic dinoflagellate, Cochlodinium (Margalefidinium) polykrikoides, are allelopathic and may have unique associations with bacteria, a comprehensive assessment of the planktonic communities associated with these blooms has been lacking. Here, we used high-throughput amplicon sequencing to assess size fractionated (0.2 and 5 μm) bacterial (16S) and phytoplankton assemblages (18S) associated with blooms of C. polykrikoides during recurrent blooms in NY, USA. Over a three-year period, samples were collected inside (‘patch’) and outside (‘non-patch’) dense accumulations of C. polykrikoides to assess the microbiome associated with these blooms. Eukaryotic plankton communities of blooms had significantly lower diversity than non-bloom samples, and non-bloom samples hosted 30 eukaryotic operational taxonomic units (OTUs) not found within blooms, suggesting they may have been allelopathically excluded from blooms. Differential abundance analyses revealed that C. polykrikoides blooms were significantly enriched in dinoflagellates (p<0.001) and the experimental enrichment of C. polykrikoides led to a significant increase in the relative abundance of eight genera of dinoflagellates but a significant decline in other eukaryotic plankton. Amoebophrya co-dominated both within- and near- C. polykrikoides blooms and was more abundant in bloom patches. The core bacterial microbiome of the >0.2μm fraction of blooms was dominated by an uncultured bacterium from the SAR11 clade, while the >5μm size fraction was co-dominated by an uncultured bacterium from Rhodobacteraceae and Coraliomargarita. Two bacterial lineages within the >0.2μm fraction, as well as the Gammaproteobacterium, Halioglobus, from the >5μm fraction were unique to the microbiome of blooms, while there were 154 bacterial OTUs only found in non-bloom waters. Collectively, these findings reveal the unique composition and potential function of eukaryotic and prokaryotic communities associated with C. polykrikoides blooms.

Klíčová slova:

Algae – Bacteria – Eukaryota – Microbial taxonomy – Microbiome – Dinoflagellates – Marine bacteria – Synechococcus


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