Pup mortality in New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) at Enderby Island, Auckland Islands, 2013-18


Autoři: Sarah A. Michael aff001;  David T. S. Hayman aff003;  Rachael Gray aff001;  Ji Zhang aff003;  Lynn Rogers aff003;  Wendi D. Roe aff002
Působiště autorů: Sydney School of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia aff001;  School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand aff002;  Molecular Epidemiology and Public Health Laboratory, Hopkirk Research Institute, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225461

Souhrn

New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) are an endemic and endangered species. Pup mortality at Enderby Island (50.5°S, 166.28°E) in the New Zealand sub-Antarctic has been well studied, with subsequent investigations yielding more intricate detail of the causes of mortality, as new diagnostic methods become available. Klebsiella pneumoniae was first reported in 2001–02 at this site, causing a pup mortality epizootic and is now known to be present at several colonies. This bacterium is a common mucosal commensal of humans and animals, however the agent found in pups at necropsy is a hypervirulent strain, readily recognised in microbial culture as being hypermucoviscous. Infection causes septicaemia with a common syndrome of subsequent meningitis and polyarthritis. This investigation uses histopathology and microbiology, with new modalities such as matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation—time of flight mass spectrometry to show that Klebsiella septicaemia could have historically been, and continues to be, the most important cause of pup mortality, but has been previously underrepresented due to the often cryptic presentation and sometimes peracute course of disease. Hypermucoviscous K. pneumoniae should be considered a serious threat to pup survival in the species, causing on average 60.2% of pup deaths annually at Enderby Island between 2013 and 2018, with likely more continuing mortality following pup dispersal and the cessation of the summer monitoring season. Less common causes of death included starvation (14.8%), trauma/asphyxiation (9.9%) and other infections (7%). This study forms the basis for further evaluation of risk factors for pup mortality in the species, with a view to developing active mitigation.

Klíčová slova:

Arthritis – Hookworms – Islands – Meningitis – Necrotic cell death – Sea lions


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Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 11