Unique developmental trajectories of risk behaviors in adolescence and associated outcomes in young adulthood

Autoři: Margot Peeters aff001;  Albertine Oldehinkel aff002;  René Veenstra aff003;  Wilma Vollebergh aff001
Působiště autorů: Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands aff001;  University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands aff002;  University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225088


This study aimed at assessing developmental trajectories of risk behaviors from adolescence into young adulthood and their associations with outcomes in young adulthood (i.e. education, employment). Data of the TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) including 2,149 participants (mean age = 13.6, SD = 0.5, 51% girls) were used to examine the development of alcohol, cannabis, smoking, and externalizing behavior. The results showed that the associations between these risk behaviors varied with age, and revealed varying developmental patterns throughout adolescence. Most notably alcohol use did not covary strongly with the other risk behaviors. The often assumed peak in risk behavior in adolescence was only found in a small group, and only for alcohol (7.4%) and cannabis use (3.4%), but not for smoking or externalizing behavior. Most adolescents revealed only low involvement in risk behavior, with the largest differences between low and high trajectories emerging in late adolescence (> 19 years). Clustering of risk behavior throughout adolescence is rather the exception than the rule and depends on age and type of risk behavior. Differences in risk behavior between individuals become the largest in late adolescence, possibly influencing successful transition into adulthood visible in educational attainment and employment.

Klíčová slova:

Adolescents – Aggression – Alcohol consumption – Alcohols – Behavior – Cannabis – Delinquency – Educational attainment


1. Arnett J. Reckless behavior in adolescence: A developmental perspective. Dev Rev 1992; 12:339–373. https://doi.org/10.1016/0273-2297(92)90013-R

2. Byrnes JP, Miller DC, Schafer WD. Gender differences in risk taking: a meta-analysis. Psycholog Bull. 1999; 125:367–383.

3. Duell N, Steinberg L, Icenogle G, Chein J, Chaudhary N, Di Giunta L, … Pastorelli C. Age patterns in risk taking across the world. J Youth Adolesc. 2018; 47:1052–1072. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-017-0752-y 29047004

4. Hawkins JD, Catalano RF, Kosterman R, Abbott R, Hill KG. Preventing adolescent health-risk behaviors by strengthening protection during childhood. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999; 153:226–234. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.153.3.226 10086398

5. Spear L. P. The adolescent brain and age-related behavioral manifestations. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2000;24:417–463. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0149-7634(00)00014-2 10817843

6. Cooper ML, Wood PK, Orcutt HK, Albino A. Personality and the predisposition to engage in risky or problem behaviors during adolescence. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2003; 84:390–410. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.2.390 12585812

7. Duncan SC, Duncan TE, Strycker LA. Risk and protective factors influencing adolescent problem behavior: A multivariate latent growth curve analysis. Ann Behav Med. 2000; 22:103–109. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02895772 10962701

8. Jessor R. Risk behavior in adolescence: a psychosocial framework for understanding and action. J Adolesc Health. 1991; 12:597–605. http://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1016/1054-139X(91)90007-K 1799569

9. McGee L, Newcomb MD. General deviance syndrome: Expanded hierarchical evaluations at four ages from early adolescence to adulthood. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1992; 60:766–776. doi: 10.1037//0022-006x.60.5.766 1401392

10. Steinberg L. A social neuroscience perspective on adolescent risk-taking. Dev Rev. 2008; 28:78–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2007.08.002 18509515

11. Wickrama KA, Conger RD, Wallace LE, Elder GH Jr. The intergenerational transmission of health-risk behaviors: Adolescent lifestyles and gender moderating effects. J Health Soc Behav. 1999; 40:258–272. https://doi.org/10.2307/2676351 10513147

12. Defoe IN, Dubas JS, Figner B, van Aken MA. A meta-analysis on age differences in risky decision making: Adolescents versus children and adults. Psychol Bull. 2015; 141:48–84. https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0038088 25365761

13. Schulenberg JE, Maggs JL. A developmental perspective on alcohol use and heavy drinking during adolescence and the transition to young adulthood. J Stud Alcohol, Suppl. 2002; s14:54–70. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsas.2002.s14.54

14. Fromme K, Corbin WR, Kruse MI. Behavioral risks during the transition from high school to college. Dev Psychol. 2008; 44:1497–1504. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0012614 18793080

15. Slutske WS, Hunt-Carter EE, Nabors-Oberg RE, Sher KJ, Bucholz KK, Madden PA, … Heath AC. Do college students drink more than their non-college-attending peers? Evidence from a population-based longitudinal female twin study. J Abnorm Psychol. 2004; 11:530–540. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.113.4.530

16. Willoughby T, Good M, Adachi PJ, Hamza C, Tavernier R. Examining the link between adolescent brain development and risk taking from a social–developmental perspective (reprinted). Brain Cognition. 2014; 89:70–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2013.09.008 25113660

17. Odgers CL, Moffitt TE, Broadbent JM, Dickson N, Hancox RJ, Harrington H, … Caspi A. Female and male antisocial trajectories: From childhood origins to adult outcomes. Dev Psychopathol. 2008; 20:673–716. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579408000333 18423100

18. DuRant RH, Smith JA, Kreiter SR, Krowchuk DP. The relationship between early age of onset of initial substance use and engaging in multiple health risk behaviors among young adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999; 153:286–291. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.153.3.286 10086407

19. Bjork JM, Pardini DA. Who are those “risk-taking adolescents”? Individual differences in developmental neuroimaging research. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2015; 11:56–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2014.07.008 25176616

20. Hill KG, White HR, Chung IJ, Hawkins JD, Catalano RF. Early adult outcomes of adolescent binge drinking: person-and variable-centered analyses of binge drinking trajectories. Alcohol: Clin Exp Res. 2000; 24:892–901.

21. Latvala A, Rose RJ, Pulkkinen L, Dick DM, Korhonen T, Kaprio J. Drinking, smoking, and educational achievement: cross-lagged associations from adolescence to adulthood. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2014; 137:106–113. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.01.016 24548801

22. Patrick ME, Schulenberg JE, O’Malley PM. High school substance use as a predictor of college attendance, completion, and dropout: A national multicohort longitudinal study. Youth Soc. 2016; 48:425–447. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0044118X13508961 27134316

23. Staff J, Schulenberg JE, Maslowsky J, Bachman JG, O’Malley PM, Maggs JL, Johnston LD. Substance use changes and social role transitions: proximal developmental effects on ongoing trajectories from late adolescence through early adulthood. Dev Psychopathol. 2010; 22:917–32. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579410000544 20883590

24. Ashenhurst JR, Harden KP, Corbin WR, Fromme K. Trajectories of binge drinking and personality change across emerging adulthood. Psychol Add Behav. 2015; 29:978–991. https://doi.org/10.1037/adb0000116

25. Derefinko KJ, Charnigo RJ, Peters JR, Adams ZW, Milich R, Lynam DR. Substance use trajectories from early adolescence through the transition to college. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2016; 77:924–935. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2016.77.924 27797694

26. Crosnoe R. The connection between academic failure and adolescent drinking in secondary school. Sociol Educ. 2006; 79:44–60. https://doi.org/10.1177/003804070607900103 20216913

27. Grant BF, Dawson DA. Age at onset of alcohol use and its association with DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence: results from the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. J Subst Abus. 1997; 9:103–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0899-3289(97)90009-2

28. Kann L, Olsen EOM, McManus T, Harris WA, Shanklin SL, Flint KH, … Thornton J. Sexual identity, sex of sexual contacts, and health-related behaviors among students in Grades 9-12—United States and selected sites, 2015. Morbidity and mortality Weekly report. Surveillance Summaries. 2016; Volume 65, Number 9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

29. Caspi A, Begg D, Dickson N, Harrington H, Langley J, Moffitt TE, Silva PA. Personality differences predict health-risk behaviors in young adulthood: evidence from a longitudinal study. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1997; 73:1052–1063. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.73.5.1052 9364760

30. Hanson MD, Chen E. Socioeconomic status and health behaviors in adolescence: a review of the literature. J Behav Med. 2007; 30:263. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-007-9098-3 17514418

31. Casey BJ. Beyond simple models of self-control to circuit-based accounts of adolescent behavior. Annu Rev Psychol.2015; 66:295–319. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015156 25089362

32. Galvan A, Hare TA, Parra CE, Penn J, Voss H, Glover G, Casey BJ. Earlier development of the accumbens relative to orbitofrontal cortex might underlie risk-taking behavior in adolescents. J Neurosci. 2006. 26:6885–6892. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1062-06.2006 16793895

33. Dijkstra JK, Kretschmer T, Pattiselanno K, Franken A, Harakeh Z, Vollebergh W, Veenstra R. Explaining adolescents’ delinquency and substance use: A test of the maturity gap. J Res Crime Delinq. 2015; 52:747–767.

34. Harden KP, Tucker-Drob EM. Individual differences in the development of sensation seeking and impulsivity during adolescence: further evidence for a dual systems model. Dev Psychol. 2011; 47:739–746. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0023279 21534657

35. Mackenbach JP. The persistence of health inequalities in modern welfare states: the explanation of a paradox. Soc Sci Med. 2012; 75:761–769. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.02.031 22475407

36. Resnick MD, Bearman PS, Blum RW, Bauman KE, Harris KM, Jones J, … Ireland M. Protecting adolescents from harm: findings from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health. JAMA. 1997; 278:823–832. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1997.03550100049038 9293990

37. Tucker JS, Ellickson PL, Orlando M, Martino SC, Klein DJ. Substance use trajectories from early adolescence to emerging adulthood: A comparison of smoking, binge drinking, and marijuana use. J Drug Issues. 2005; 35:307–332. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F002204260503500205

38. Cousijn J, Luijten M, Ewing SWF. Adolescent resilience to addiction: a social plasticity hypothesis. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2018; 2:69–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(17)30148-7 30169197

39. Romer D, Reyna VF, Satterthwaite TD. Beyond stereotypes of adolescent risk taking: Placing the adolescent brain in developmental context. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2017; 27:19–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcn.2017.07.007 28777995

40. Moffitt TE. Life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychol Rev. 1993; 100:674–701. 8255953

41. Silins E, Fergusson DM, Patton GC, Horwood LJ, Olsson CA, Hutchinson DM, … Toumbourou JW. Adolescent substance use and educational attainment: an integrative data analysis comparing cannabis and alcohol from three Australasian cohorts. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015; 156:90–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.08.034 26409754

42. Oldehinkel AJ, Rosmalen JG, Buitelaar JK, Hoek HW, Ormel J, Raven D, … Hartman CA. Cohort profile update: the tracking adolescents’ individual lives survey (TRAILS). Int J Epidemiol. 2014; 44:76–76n. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyu225 25431468

43. Achenbach T, Rescorla L. Manual for the ASEBA School-Age Forms & Profiles. Burlington VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families; 2001.

44. Monshouwer K, Harakeh Z, Lugtig P, Huizink A, Creemers HE, Reijneveld SA, … Vollebergh WAM. Predicting transitions in low and high levels of risk behavior from early to middle adolescence: The TRAILS study. J Abnorm. Child Psychol. 2012; 40: 923–931. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-012-9624-9 22427248

45. Arnett J. The developmental context of substance use in emerging adulthood. Journal of drug issues. 2005; 35:235–54

46. Geijtenbeek L. Why marry? Marital status and childbirth in the Netherlands. Statistics Netherland. 2015.

47. van de Schoot R, Kluytmans A, Tummers L, Lugtig P, Hox J, Muthén B. Facing off with Scylla and Charybdis: a comparison of scalar, partial, and the novel possibility of approximate measurement invariance. Front Psychol. 2013; 4:770. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00770 24167495

48. Meeus W, Van De Schoot R, Keijsers L, Schwartz SJ, Branje S. On the progression and stability of adolescent identity formation: A five-wave longitudinal study in early-to-middle and middle-to-late adolescence. Child Dev. 2010; 81:1565–1581. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01492.x 20840241

49. Peeters M, Monshouwer K, van de Schoot R, Janssen T, Vollebergh W, Wiers RW. Personality and the prediction of high-risk trajectories of alcohol use during adolescence. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2014 75:790–798. https://doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2014.75.790 25208197

50. Clark, S. L., & Muthén, B. Relating latent class analysis results to variables not included in the analysis. 2009; Retrieved from http://statmodel.com/download/relatinglca.pdf

51. McCambridge J, McAlaney J, Rowe R. Adult consequences of late adolescent alcohol consumption: a systematic review of cohort studies. PLoS Med. 2011; 8:e1000413. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000413 21346802

52. Bialosiewicz S, Murphy K, Berry T. Do our measures measure up? The critical role of measurement invariance. An Introduction to Measurement Invariance Testing: Resource Packet for Participants: 2013.

53. Peeters M, Wiers RW, Monshouwer K, van de Schoot R, Janssen T, Vollebergh W. Automatic processes in at-risk adolescents: the role of alcohol-approach tendencies and response inhibition in drinking behavior. Addiction. 2012; 107:1939–1946. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.03948.x 22632107

54. ESPAD Group. ESPAD Report 2015: Results from the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

55. de Looze ME, van Dorsselaer SA, Monshouwer K, Vollebergh W. Trends in adolescent alcohol use in the Netherlands, 1992–2015: Differences across sociodemographic groups and links with strict parental rule-setting. Int J Drug Policy. 2017; 50:90–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.09.013 29080480

56. Vrieze SI, Hicks BM, Iacono WG, McGue M. Decline in genetic influence on the co-occurrence of alcohol, marijuana, and nicotine dependence symptoms from age 14 to 29. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2012;169:1073–81. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.11081268 22983309

57. Brown SA, McGue M, Maggs J, Schulenberg J, Hingson R, Swartzwelder S, … Winters KC. A developmental perspective on alcohol and youths 16 to 20 years of age. Pediatrics. 2008; 121: S290–S310. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-2243D 18381495

58. Gates JR, Corbin WR, Fromme K. Emerging adult identity development, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems during the transition out of college. Psychol Addict Behav. 2016; 30:345–355. https://dx.doi.org/10.1037%2Fadb0000179 27077443

59. Stevens G, Dorsselaer S, Boer M, Roos de S, Duinhof E, Bogt ter T, … Looze de M. Health and well-being of youth in the Netherlands: HBSC 2017

Článek vyšel v časopise


2019 Číslo 11