Mitochondrial alarmins are tissue mediators of ventilator-induced lung injury and ARDS

Autoři: Serge Grazioli aff001;  Irène Dunn-Siegrist aff001;  Laure-Anne Pauchard aff003;  Mathieu Blot aff005;  Pierre-Emmanuel Charles aff003;  Jérôme Pugin aff001
Působiště autorů: Intensive Care Laboratory, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Geneva & Faculty of Medicine, Genève, Switzerland aff001;  Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatal and Pediatric Intensive Care, University Hospital of Geneva, Genève, Switzerland aff002;  Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital of Dijon, Dijon, France aff003;  U.M.R. 1231, I.N.S.E.R.M, Burgundy University, Dijon, France aff004;  Department of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Dijon, Dijon, France aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225468



Endogenous tissue mediators inducing lung inflammation in the context of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are ill-defined.


To test whether mitochondrial alarmins are released during VILI, and are associated with lung inflammation.


Release of mitochondrial DNA, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) peptide-dependent neutrophil chemotaxis were measured in conditioned supernatants from human alveolar type II-like (A549) epithelial cells submitted to cyclic stretch in vitro. Similar measurements were performed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from rabbits submitted to an injurious ventilatory regimen, and from patients with ARDS.

Measurements and main results

Mitochondrial DNA was released by A549 cells during cell stretching, and was found elevated in BAL fluids from rabbits during VILI, and from ARDS patients. Cyclic stretch-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) of A549 cells could be inhibited by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) blockade. ATP concentrations were increased in conditioned supernatants from A549 cells, and in rabbit BAL fluids during VILI. Neutrophil chemotaxis induced by A549 cells conditioned supernatants was essentially dependent on fMLP rather than IL-8. A synergy between cyclic stretch-induced alarmins and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was found in monocyte-derived macrophages in the production of IL-1ß.


Mitochondrial alarmins are released during cyclic stretch of human epithelial cells, as well as in BAL fluids from rabbits ventilated with an injurious ventilatory regimen, and found in BAL fluids from ARDS patients, particularly in those with high alveolar inflammation. These alarmins are likely to represent the proximal endogenous mediators of VILI and ARDS, released by injured pulmonary cells.

Klíčová slova:

Acute respiratory distress syndrome – Chemotaxis – Inflammation – Macrophages – Mitochondria – Mitochondrial DNA – Neutrophils – Rabbits


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