Comparative vector competence of the Afrotropical soft tick Ornithodoros moubata and Palearctic species, O. erraticus and O. verrucosus, for African swine fever virus strains circulating in Eurasia


Autoři: Rémi Pereira de Oliveira aff001;  Evelyne Hutet aff001;  Frédéric Paboeuf aff001;  Maxime Duhayon aff002;  Fernando Boinas aff004;  Adalberto Perez de Leon aff005;  Serhii Filatov aff006;  Laurence Vial aff002;  Marie-Frédérique Le Potier aff001
Působiště autorů: Swine Virology and Immunology Unit, Laboratoire de Ploufragan-Plouzané-Niort, Agence Nationale de Sécurité Sanitaire (ANSES), Ploufragan, France aff001;  UMR ASTRE Animal Santé, Territoires, Risques et Ecosystèmes, Centre de coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), Montpellier, France aff002;  University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France aff003;  CIISA—Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal aff004;  Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory and Veterinary Pest Genomics Center, USDA-ARS, Kerrville, Texas, United States of America aff005;  National Scientific Center Institute of Experimental and Clinical Veterinary Medicine, NSC IECVM), Kharkiv, Ukraine aff006
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225657

Souhrn

African swine fever (ASF) is a lethal hemorrhagic disease in domestic pigs and wild suids caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), which threatens the swine industry globally. In its native African enzootic foci, ASFV is naturally circulating between soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros, especially in the O. moubata group, and wild reservoir suids, such as warthogs (Phacochoerus spp.) that are bitten by infected soft ticks inhabiting their burrows. While the ability of some Afrotropical soft ticks to transmit and maintain ASFV is well established, the vector status of Palearctic soft tick species for ASFV strains currently circulating in Eurasia remains largely unknown. For example, the Iberian soft tick O. erraticus is a known vector and reservoir of ASFV, but its ability to transmit different ASFV strains has not been assessed since ASF re-emerged in Europe in 2007. Little is known about vector competence for ASFV in other species, such as O. verrucosus, which occurs in southern parts of Eastern Europe, including Ukraine and parts of Russia, and in the Caucasus. Therefore, we conducted transmission trials with two Palearctic soft tick species, O. erraticus and O. verrucosus, and the Afrotropical species O. moubata. We tested the ability of ticks to transmit virulent ASFV strains, including one of direct African origin (Liv13/33), and three from Eurasia that had been involved in previous (OurT88/1), and the current epizooties (Georgia2007/1 and Ukr12/Zapo). Our experimental results showed that O. moubata was able to transmit the African and Eurasian ASFV strains, whereas O. erraticus and O. verrucosus failed to transmit the Eurasian ASFV strains. However, naïve pigs showed clinical signs of ASF when inoculated with homogenates of crushed O. erraticus and O. verrucosus ticks that fed on viraemic pigs, which proved the infectiousness of ASFV contained in the ticks. These results documented that O. erraticus and O. verrucosus are unlikely to be capable vectors of ASFV strains currently circulating in Eurasia. Additionally, the persistence of infection in soft ticks for several months reaffirms that the infectious status of a given tick species is only part of the data required to assess its vector competence for ASFV.

Klíčová slova:

Blood – Domestic animals – Euthanasia – Hyperthermia – Polymerase chain reaction – Swine – Ticks – Vector-borne diseases


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