Chronic bronchitis without airflow obstruction, asthma and rhinitis are differently associated with cardiovascular risk factors and diseases

Autoři: Marcello Ferrari aff001;  Elia Piccinno aff001;  Alessandro Marcon aff002;  Pierpaolo Marchetti aff002;  Lucia Cazzoletti aff002;  Pietro Pirina aff003;  Salvatore Battaglia aff004;  Amelia Grosso aff005;  Giulia Squillacioti aff006;  Leonardo Antonicelli aff007;  Giuseppe Verlato aff002;  Giancarlo Pesce aff008
Působiště autorů: Department of Medicine, Unit of Respiratory Medicine, University of Verona, Verona, Italy aff001;  Unit of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona, Italy aff002;  Unità Operativa di Pneumologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, Chirurgiche e Sperimentali, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Sassari, Italy aff003;  Dipartimento Universitario di Promozione della Salute, Materno Infantile, Medicina Interna e Specialistica di Eccellenza "G. D'Alessandro"(PROMISE), Università di Palermo, Palermo, Italy aff004;  Division of Respiratory Diseases, IRCCS “San Matteo” Hospital Foundation, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy aff005;  Department of Public Health and Pediatrics, University of Turin, Turin, Italy aff006;  Allergy Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti, Ancona, Italy aff007;  Epidemiology of Allergic and Respiratory Diseases Department (EPAR), Institut Pierre Louis d’Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique (IPLESP), Sorbonne Université, INSERM UMR-S 1136, Paris, France aff008
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224999


Background and objectives

Cardiovascular and respiratory diseases can frequently coexist. Understanding their link may improve disease management. We aimed at assessing the associations of chronic bronchitis (CB), asthma and rhinitis with cardiovascular diseases and risk factors in the general population.


We used data collected in the Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases study, an Italian multicentre, multicase-control study. Among 2463 participants (age 21–86, female 50%) who underwent standardized interviews, skin prick and lung function tests, we identified 254 cases of CB without airflow obstruction, 418 cases of asthma without CB, 959 cases of rhinitis alone, and 832 controls. The associations of respiratory diseases with reported cardiovascular risk factors (lifestyles, hypertension, dyslipidaemia), heart disorders (myocardial infarction, coronary thrombosis, angina, aorta or heart surgery) and intermittent claudication were estimated through relative risk ratios (RRR) by multinomial logistic regression models.


Compared to controls, CB cases were more likely to be heavy smokers, alcohol consumers, physically inactive, and to suffer from hypertension or dyslipidaemia; rhinitis cases were less obese but more likely to have hypertension. Asthma was significantly associated with current smoking. After adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, heart disorders were associated with CB (RRR[95%CI]: 1.58[1.12–2.22]) and rhinitis (1.35[0.98–1.85]) and intermittent claudication was associated with CB (3.43[2.52–4.67]), asthma (1.51[1.04–2.21]) and rhinitis (2.03[1.34–3.07]).


CB, asthma and rhinitis were associated with cardiovascular risk factors and diseases. In particular, CB shared with cardiovascular diseases almost all risk factors and was strongly associated with a higher risk of heart disorders and intermittent claudication.

Klíčová slova:

Alcohol consumption – Asthma – Bronchitis – Cardiovascular diseases – Hypertension – Medical risk factors – Rhinitis


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