Selection of optimal reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of shoot development and graviresponse in prostrate and erect chrysanthemums

Autoři: Xiaowei Li aff001;  Yujie Yang aff001;  Sagheer Ahmad aff001;  Ming Sun aff001;  Cunquan Yuan aff001;  Tangchun Zheng aff001;  Yu Han aff001;  Tangren Cheng aff001;  Jia Wang aff001;  Qixiang Zhang aff001
Působiště autorů: Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding by Molecular Design, Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation & Molecular Breeding, National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture, Beijing Laboratory of Urban and Rural E aff001;  Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding by Molecular Design, Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation & Molecular Breeding, National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture, Beijing Laboratory of Urban and Rural E aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225241


The prostrate cultivars of ground-cover chrysanthemum have been used in landscape gardening due to their small stature, large crown width and strong branching ability. qRT-PCR is a rapid and powerful tool for gene expression analysis, while its accuracy highly depends on the stability of reference genes. The paucity of authentic reference genes presents a major hurdle in understanding the genetic regulators of prostrate architecture. Therefore, in order to reveal the regulatory mechanism of prostrate growth of chrysanthemum stems, here, stable reference genes were selected for expression analysis of key genes involved in shoot development and graviresponse. Based on transcriptome data, eleven reference genes with relatively stable expression were identified as the candidate reference genes. After the comprehensive analysis of the stability of these reference genes with four programs (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and RefFinder), we found that TIP41 was the most stable reference gene in all of the samples. SAND was determined as a superior reference gene in different genotypes and during the process of shoot development. The optimal reference gene for gravitropic response was PP2A-1. In addition, the expression patterns of LA1 and PIN1 further verified the reliability of the screened reference genes. These results can provide more accurate and reliable qRT-PCR normalization for future studies on the expression patterns of genes regulating plant architecture of chrysanthemums.

Klíčová slova:

Gene expression – Gene regulation – Genetic screens – Gravitropism – Melting – Polymerase chain reaction – RNA synthesis – Transcriptome analysis


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2019 Číslo 11