Study on characteristics of fire plume in building facade window under lateral blow


Autoři: Z. P. Bai aff001;  Y. F. Li aff002;  Y. H. Zhao aff001
Působiště autorů: Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Built Environment and Energy Efficient Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, China aff001;  College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, China aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 14(11)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225120

Souhrn

The overflow of the flame plume from the window is the main cause of the vertical spread of the fire on the facade of the building. This paper considers the geometry of the window by taking measures to prevent the flame from propagating along the vertical wall. In this paper, a residential building is taken as an example to evaluate the flame plume characteristics through experimental tests and numerical simulations. The objective of the present study is to study the flame plume characteristics under the air blow on the outer window side of the building. The theoretical equations of the flame tilt angle, non-dimensional temperature and non-dimensional velocity are derived. A series of experimental tests were carried out in a reduced-scale building model corresponding to the changes of lateral blow ventilation velocity. Reduced scale numerical simulations were conducted to verify the experiments. Results showed that the flame tilt angle increases with ventilation velocity increases. Meanwhile, the experimental results were compared with the reduced-scale tests and numerical simulations. These showed a good agreement between experimental results and numerical simulations. All these findings provide theoretical basis for building fire prevention outside window.

Klíčová slova:

Combustion – Fire engineering – Fire safety – Fuels – Wildfires – Wind – Thermocouples – Fire research


Zdroje

1. Harrison R, Spearpoint M. Smoke management issues in buildings with large enclosures. 2006.

2. Morgan HP, Ghosh BK, Garrad G, Pamlitschka R, De Smedt JC, Schoonbaert LR. Design methodologies for smoke and heat exhaust ventilation. Construction Research Communications Limited by permission of Building Research Establishment Limited. 1999.

3. Thomas P, Law M. The projection of flames from burning buildings. Fire Safety Science. 1972: 921:1–1.

4. Su S-C, Chen C-Y, Wang L, Wei C, Cui H-B, Guo C-Y. The effect of low ceiling on the external combustion of the cabin fire. AIP Conference Proceedings. AIP Publishing. 2018: 1971(1): 030011. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5041130

5. Oleszkiewicz I. Heat transfer from a window fire plume to a building facade. Asme Htd. 1989; 123: 163–170.

6. Jiang Y-X, Ren Y-X, Liu Q-S. CFD Simulation of the External Burning in the Compartment Fire. Fire Safety Science. 2006; 2: 007.

7. Li J-M, Zhao Y-H, Zhang R, Xing X-F. Numerical Studies on the Combined Effects of the Measures to Prevent Fire Vertical Spread along the Exterior Wall in High-rise Residential Buildings. DEStech Transactions on Materials Science and Engineering. 2017. https://doi.org/10.12783/dtmse/icmsea/mce2017/10856

8. Yokoi S. Study on the prevention of fire-spread caused by hot upward current. BRI Report. 1960; 34.

9. Oleszkiewicz I. Fire exposure to exterior walls and flame spread on combustible cladding. Fire Technology. 1990; 26(4): 357–375. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01293079

10. Lee Y-P, Delichatsios MA, Ohmiya Y. The physics of the outflow from the opening of an enclosure fire and re-examination of Yokoi’s correlation. Fire Safety Journal. 2012; 49: 82–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2012.01.001

11. Thomas PH. Some aspects of the growth and spread of fire in the open. Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research. 1967; 40(2): 139–164.

12. Quintiere JG, Rinkinen WJ, Jones WW. The effect of room openings on fire plume entrainment. Combustion Science and Technology. 1981; 26(5–6): 193–201. https://doi.org/10.1080/00102208108946960

13. Quintiere JG, Cleary TG. Heat flux from flames to vertical surfaces. Fire Technology. 1994; 30(2): 209–231. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01040003

14. Yamaguchi JI, Tanaka T. Temperature Profiles of Window Jet Plume. Fire Science & Technology. 2004; 24(1):17–38. https://doi.org/10.3210/fst.24.17

15. Tang F, HU L-H, Delichatsios MA, Lu K-H, Zhu W. Experimental study on flame height and temperature profile of buoyant window spill plume from an under-ventilated compartment fire. International journal of Heat and Mass transfer. 2012; 55(1–3): 93–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2011.08.045

16. Ma TG, Quintiere JG. Numerical simulation of axi-symmetric fire plumes: accuracy and limitations. Fire Safety Journal. 2003; 38(5): 467–492. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0379-7112(02)00082-6

17. Asimakopoulou EK, Kolaitis DI, Founti MA. Thermal characteristics of externally venting flames and their effect on the exposed façade surface. Fire Safety Journal. 2017; 91: 451–460. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2017.03.075

18. Miao L, Yang Y-Z, Chow C-L. Experimental study on the variation regimes of window ejecting flame height. Fire Safety Journal. 2019; 109: 102864. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2019.102864

19. Ren F, Hu L-H, Sun X-P. Experimental Investigation on Lateral Temperature Profile of Window-Ejected Facade Fire Plume with Ambient Wind. Fire Technology. 2019; 55(3): 903–913. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10694-018-0809-9

20. Hu L-H, Sun X-P, Zhang X-L, Ren F. Facade flame height and horizontal extending distance from opening of compartment fire with external sideward wind. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute. 2019; 37(3): 3859–3867. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2018.06.201

21. Sun X-P, Zhang X-L, Hu L-H, Kazunori Kuwana. Temperature evolution and transition inside fire compartment with an opening subject to external sideward wind. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute. 2019; 37(3): 3869–3877. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2018.05.161

22. Livkiss K, Svensson S, Husted B, van Hees Patrick. Flame Heights and Heat Transfer in Façade System Ventilation Cavities. Fire Technology. 2018; 54(3): 689–713. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10694-018-0706-2

23. Konno Y, Hashimoto N, Fujita O. Downward flame spreading over electric wire under various oxygen concentrations. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proci.2018.05.074

24. Lam CS, Weckman EJ. Wind-blown pool fire, Part I: Experimental characterization of the thermal field. Fire Safety Journal. 2015; 75: 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2015.04.009

25. De Faveri D M, Vidili A, Pastorino R, Ferraiolo G. Wind effects on diffusion flames of fires of high source momentum. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 1989; 22(1), 85–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3894(89)85030-7

26. Hu L-H. A review of physics and correlations of pool fire behaviour in wind and future challenges. Fire Safety Journal. 2017; 91: 41–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2017.05.008

27. Zhao YH, Li J-M, Dong Q-W. The Influence of Side Blown Wind on Overflow Flow of Building Outside Facade Windows. Fire Science and Technology. 2017; 11:015. (in Chinese)

28. McGrattan K, Hostikka S, McDermott R, Floyd J, Weinschenk C, Overholt K. Fire dynamics simulator user’s guide. NIST special publication. 2013; 1019(6).

29. Suzuki T, Sekizawa A, Yamada T, Yanai E, Satoh H, Kurioka H, Kimura Y. An experimental study of ejected flames of a high-rise building-Effects of depth of balcony on ejected flames. Fire Safety Science. 2000; 4: 363–374.

30. Li Y-Z, Yang Z, Jiang X-P. Analysis on Fire Risk of Pool Fire on Barge. Journal of Catastrophology. 2007; 4: 021.


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2019 Číslo 11