Evaluation of a bioengineered ACL matrix’s osteointegration with BMP-2 supplementation

Autoři: Paulos Y. Mengsteab aff001;  Patrick Conroy aff001;  Mary Badon aff001;  Takayoshi Otsuka aff001;  Ho-Man Kan aff001;  Anthony T. Vella aff005;  Lakshmi S. Nair aff001;  Cato T. Laurencin aff001
Působiště autorů: Connecticut Convergence Institute for Translation in Regenerative Engineering, University of Connecticut Health, Farmington, CT, United States of America aff001;  Raymond and Beverly Sackler Center for Biological, Physical and Engineering Sciences, University of Connecticut Health, Farmington, CT, United States of America aff002;  Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Connecticut Health, Farmington, CT, United States of America aff003;  Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, United States of America aff004;  Department of Immunology, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, United States of America aff005;  Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, United States of America aff006;  Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, United States of America aff007;  Department of Reconstructive Sciences, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, United States of America aff008
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0227181


A poly (l-lactic) acid bioengineered anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) matrix has previously demonstrated the ability to support tissue regeneration in a rabbit ACL reconstruction model. The matrix was designed for optimal bone and ligament regeneration by developing a matrix with differential pore sizes in its bone and ligament compartments. Building upon past success, we designed a new bioengineered ACL matrix that is easier to install and can be used with endobutton fixation during ACL reconstruction. To achieve this, a new braiding procedure was developed to allow the matrix to be folded in half, making two-limbs, while maintaining its bone and ligament compartments. The osteointegration of the matrix with and without bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) supplementation was evaluated in a rabbit ACL reconstruction model. Two doses of BMP-2 were evaluated, 1 and 10 μg, and delivered by saline injection into the bone tunnel at the end of surgery. A fibrous matrix-to-bone interface with occasional Sharpey’s fibers was the primary mode of osteointegration observed. The matrix was also found to support a fibrocartilage matrix-to-bone interface. In some cases, the presence of chondrocyte-like cells was observed at the aperture of the bone tunnel and the center of the matrix within the bone tunnel. Treatment with BMP-2 was associated with a trend towards smaller bone tunnel cross-sectional areas, and 1 μg of BMP-2 was found to significantly enhance osteoid seam width in comparison with no BMP-2 or 10 μg of BMP-2 treatment. Regenerated tissue was well organized within the bioengineered ACL matrix and aligned with the poly (l-lactic) acid fibers. Disorganized tissue was found between the two-limbs of the bioengineered ACL matrix and hypothesized to be due to a lack of structural scaffolding. This study suggests that the bioengineered ACL matrix can undergo similar modes of osteointegration as current autografts and allografts, and that BMP-2 treatment may enhance osteoblastic activity within the bone tunnels.

Klíčová slova:

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction – Cell staining – Cytokines – Knees – Rabbits – Tendons – Fibrocartilage – Tibia


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