Antenatal depression and its association with adverse birth outcomes in low and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Autoři: Abel Fekadu Dadi aff001;  Emma R. Miller aff002;  Lillian Mwanri aff002
Působiště autorů: Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia aff001;  College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Health Sciences Building, Adelaide, South Australia aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227323



Depression in pregnancy (antenatal depression) in many low and middle-income countries is not well documented and has not been given priority for intervention due to competing urgencies and the belief that it does not immediately cause fatalities, which mainly emanated from lack of comprehensive research on the area. To fill this research gap, this systematic review was conducted to investigate the burden of antenatal depression and its consequences on birth outcomes in low- and middle-income countries.


We systematically searched the databases: CINHAL, MEDLINE, EMCare, PubMed, PSyc Info, Psychiatry online, and Scopus for studies conducted in low and middle-income countries about antenatal depression and its association with adverse birth outcomes. We have included observational studies (case control, cross-sectional and cohort studies), written in English-language, scored in the range of “good quality” on the Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS), and were published between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2017. Studies were excluded if a standardized approach was not used to measure main outcomes, they were conducted on restricted (high risk) populations, or had fair to poor quality score on NOS. We used Higgins and Egger’s to test for heterogeneity and publication bias. Primary estimates were pooled using a random effect meta-analysis. The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO with protocol number CRD42017082624.


We included 64 studies (with 44, 035 women) on antenatal depression and nine studies (with 5,540 women) on adverse birth outcomes. Antenatal depression was higher in the lower-income countries (Pooled Prevalence (PP) = 34.0%; 95%CI: 33.1%-34.9%) compared to the middle-income countries (PP = 22.7%, 95%CI: 20.1%-25.2%) and increased over the three trimesters. Pregnant women with a history of economic difficulties, poor marital relationships, common mental disorders, poor social support, bad obstetric history, and exposure to violence were more likely to report antenatal depression. The risk of having preterm birth (2.41; 1.47–3.56) and low birth weight (1.66; 1.06–2.61) was higher in depressed mothers compared to mothers without depression.


Antenatal depression was higher in low-income countries than in middle-income countries and was found to be a risk factor for low birth weight and preterm births. The economic, maternal, and psychosocial risk factors were responsible for the occurrence of antenatal depression. While there could be competing priority agenda to juggle for health policymakers in low-income countries, interventions for antenatal depression should be reprioritized as vitally important in order to prevent the poor maternal and perinatal outcomes identified in this review.

Klíčová slova:

Birth – Birth weight – Depression – Medical risk factors – Pregnancy – Preterm birth – Systematic reviews – Economic history


1. WHO. Depression and other common mental disorders: global health estimates. World Health Organization; 2017.

2. Wang H, Naghavi M, Allen C, Barber RM, Bhutta ZA, Carter A, et al. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. 2016;388(10053):1459–544.

3. Vos T, Allen C, Arora M, Barber RM, Bhutta ZA, Brown A, et al. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. 2016;388(10053):1545–602.

4. GBD. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. The lancet. 2015(388):1459–544.

5. Sunday EM, Okoli PC, Dinwoke VO. Level of awareness and treatment of anxiety and depression during pregnancy in southeast Nigeria. S Afr J Psychiatr. 2018;24:1192. doi: 10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v24i0.1192 30473881

6. Mukherjee S, Trepka M, Pierre-Victor D, Bahelah R, Avent T. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Antenatal Depression in the United States: A Systematic Review. Maternal & Child Health Journal. 2016;20(9):1780–97.

7. Chatillon O, Even C. [Antepartum depression: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment]. Encephale. 2010;36(6):443–51. doi: 10.1016/j.encep.2010.02.004 21130227

8. Mitchell-Jones N, Gallos I, Farren J, Tobias A, Bottomley C, Bourne T. Psychological morbidity associated with hyperemesis gravidarum: a systematic review and meta-analysis: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 124(1) (pp 20–30), 2017.

9. Biaggi A, Conroy S, Pawlby S, Pariante CM. Identifying the women at risk of antenatal anxiety and depression: A systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2016;191:62–77. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.11.014 26650969

10. Gelaye B, Rondon MB, Araya R, Williams MA. Epidemiology of maternal depression, risk factors, and child outcomes in low-income and middle-income countries. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2016;3(10):973–82. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(16)30284-X 27650773

11. Woody CA, Ferrari AJ, Siskind DJ, Whiteford HA, Harris MG. A systematic review and meta-regression of the prevalence and incidence of perinatal depression. J Affect Disord. 2017;219:86–92. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.05.003 28531848

12. Slomian J, Honvo G, Emonts P, Reginster J-Y, Bruyère O. Consequences of maternal postpartum depression: A systematic review of maternal and infant outcomes. Womens Health (Lond). 2019;15:1745506519844044.

13. Li J, Mao J, Du Y, Morris JL, Gong G, Xiong X. Health-related quality of life among pregnant women with and without depression in Hubei, China. Matern Child Health J. 2012;16(7):1355–63. doi: 10.1007/s10995-011-0900-z 22045020

14. Franke K, Bergh Bvd, de Rooij SR, Roseboom TJ, Nathanielsz PW, Witte OW, et al. Effects of Prenatal Stress on Structural Brain Development and Aging in Humans. bioRxiv. 2017 Jan 1:148916.

15. Sikander S, Ahmad I, Bates LM, Gallis J, Hagaman A, O'Donnell K, et al. Cohort Profile: Perinatal depression and child socioemotional development; the Bachpan cohort study from rural Pakistan. BMJ Open. 2019;9(5).

16. Wen DJ, Poh JS, Ni SN, Chong YS, Chen H, Kwek K, et al. Influences of prenatal and postnatal maternal depression on amygdala volume and microstructure in young children. Translational Psychiatry. 2017;7(4).

17. Latendresse G, Wong B, Dyer J, Wilson B, Baksh L, Hogue C. Duration of Maternal Stress and Depression. Nursing Research. 2015;64(5):331–41. doi: 10.1097/NNR.0000000000000117 26325275

18. Diego MA, Field T, Hernandez-Reif M, Schanberg S, Kuhn C, Gonzalez-Quintero VH. Prenatal depression restricts fetal growth. Early Human Development. 2009;85(1):65–70. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2008.07.002 18723301

19. Field T, Diego M, Hernandez-rief M, Figueiredo B, Schanberg. Kuhn C, et al. Chronic prenatal depression and neonatal outcome. International Journal of Neuroscience. 2008;118(1):95–103. doi: 10.1080/00207450601042144 18041608

20. Stringer E, Johnson J, Jackson C, Meltzer-Brody S. 646: Antenatal depression in an urban population of pregnant adolescents and young adults may contribute to preterm birth. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2016;214(1):S344.

21. Kim DR, Sockol LE, Sammel MD, Kelly C, Moseley M, Epperson C. Elevated risk of adverse obstetric outcomes in pregnant women with depression. Archives of Women's Mental Health. 2013;16(6):475–82. doi: 10.1007/s00737-013-0371-x 23934018

22. Feinberg ME, Jones DE, Roettger ME, Hostetler ML, Sakuma KL, Paul IM, et al. Preventive Effects on Birth Outcomes: Buffering Impact of Maternal Stress, Depression, and Anxiety. Matern Child Health J. 2016;20(1):56–65. doi: 10.1007/s10995-015-1801-3 26194453

23. Raisanen S, Lehto SM, Nielsen HS, Gissler M, Kramer MR, Heinonen S. Risk factors for and perinatal outcomes of major depression during pregnancy: a population-based analysis during 2002–2010 in Finland. BMJ Open. 2014;4(11)

24. Quispel C, Bangma M, Kazemier BM, Steegers EAP, Hoogendijk WJG, Papatsonis DNM, et al. The role of depressive symptoms in the pathway of demographic and psychosocial risks to preterm birth and small for gestational age. Midwifery. 2014;30(8):919–25. doi: 10.1016/j.midw.2014.03.008 24742634

25. Szegda K, Bertone-Johnson ER, Pekow P, Powers S, Markenson G, Dole N, et al. Depression during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes among predominantly puerto rican women. Maternal and child health journal. 2017 Apr 1;21(4):942–52. doi: 10.1007/s10995-016-2195-6 27995411

26. Chang HY, Keyes KM, Lee KS, Choi IA, Kim SJ, Kim KW, et al. Prenatal maternal depression is associated with low birth weight through shorter gestational age in term infants in Korea. Early Human Development. 2014;90(1):15–20. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2013.11.006 24331828

27. Husain N, Munshi T, Jafri F, Husain M, Parveen A, Saeed Q, et al. Antenatal depression is not associated with low birth weight: A study from urban Pakistan. Frontiers in psychiatry. 2014 Dec 10;5:175. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00175 25540627

28. Saeed A, Raana T, Saeed AM, Humayun A. Effect of antenatal depression on maternal dietary intake and neonatal outcome: a prospective cohort. Nutrition Journal. 2016;15(1):64. doi: 10.1186/s12937-016-0184-7 27401187

29. Stewart DE. Depression during Pregnancy. New England Journal of Medicine. 2011;365(17):1605–11. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp1102730 22029982

30. Amiel Castro RT, Pinard Anderman C, Glover V, O’Connor TG, Ehlert U, Kammerer M. Associated symptoms of depression: patterns of change during pregnancy. Archives of Women's Mental Health. 2017;20(1):123–8. doi: 10.1007/s00737-016-0685-6 27878386

31. Araujo DM, Vilarim MM, Sabroza AR, Nardi AE. [Depression during pregnancy and low birth weight: a systematic literature review]. Cad Saude Publica. 2010;26(2):219–27. doi: 10.1590/s0102-311x2010000200002 20396838

32. Hanlon C, Medhin G, Alem A, Tesfaye F, Lakew Z, Worku B, et al. Impact of antenatal common mental disorders upon perinatal outcomes in Ethiopia: The P-MaMiE population-based cohort study. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2009;14(2):156–66. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02198.x 19187514

33. Gelaye B, Rondon M, Araya R, Williams MA. Epidemiology of maternal depression, risk factors, and child outcomes in low-income and middle-income countries. The lancet Psychiatry. 2016;3(10):973–82. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(16)30284-X 27650773

34. Bae J-M. A suggestion for quality assessment in systematic reviews of observational studies in nutritional epidemiology. Epidemiology and Health. 2016;38.

35. Stang A. Critical evaluation of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for the assessment of the quality of nonrandomized studies in meta-analyses. Eur J Epidemiol. 2010;25(9):603–5. doi: 10.1007/s10654-010-9491-z 20652370

36. Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC, Olkin I, Williamson GD, Rennie D, et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group. JAMA. 2000;283(15):2008–12. doi: 10.1001/jama.283.15.2008 10789670

37. Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. Bmj. 1997;315(7109):629–34. doi: 10.1136/bmj.315.7109.629 9310563

38. Loannidis JP. Interpretation of tests of heterogeneity and bias in meta-analysis. Journal of evaluation in clinical practice. 2008;14(5):951–7. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2753.2008.00986.x 19018930

39. Duval S, Tweedie R. Trim and fill: A simple funnel-plot-based method of testing and adjusting for publication bias in meta-analysis. Biometrics. 2000;56(2):455–63. doi: 10.1111/j.0006-341x.2000.00455.x 10877304

40. Galbraith RF. Graphical display of estimates having differing standard errors. Technometrics. 1988;30(3):271–81.

41. Higgins J, Thompson S, Deeks J, Altman D. Statistical heterogeneity in systematic reviews of clinical trials: a critical appraisal of guidelines and practice. Journal of health services research & policy. 2002;7(1):51–61.

42. Fletcher J. What is heterogeneity and is it important? BMJ: British Medical Journal. 2007;334(7584):94–6. doi: 10.1136/bmj.39057.406644.68 17218716

43. Stata A. Stata Base Reference Manual Release 14. 2015.

44. Adewuya AO, Ola BA, Aloba OO, Dada AO, Fasoto OO. Prevalence and correlates of depression in late pregnancy among Nigerian women. Depression & Anxiety. 2007;24(1):15–21.

45. Esimai O, Fatoye F, Quiah A, Vidal O, Momoh R. Antepartum anxiety and depressive symptoms: a study of Nigerian women during the three trimesters of pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2008;28.

46. Gausia K, Fisher C, Ali M, Oosthuizen J. Antenatal depression and suicidal ideation among rural Bangladeshi women: a community-based study. Archives of Women's Mental Health. 2009;12(5):351–8. doi: 10.1007/s00737-009-0080-7 19468825

47. Luna Matos ML, Salinas Pielago J, Luna Figueroa A. [Major depression in pregnant women served by the National Materno-Perinatal Institute in Lima, Peru]. Pan American Journal of Public Health. 2009;26(4):310–4. doi: 10.1590/s1020-49892009001000004 20107678

48. Mitsuhiro SS, Chalem E, Moraes Barros MC, Guinsburg R, Laranjeira R. Brief report: Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in pregnant teenagers. Journal of Adolescence. 2009;32(3):747–52. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2008.12.001 19349073

49. Pereira PK, Lovisi GM, Pilowsky DL, Lima LA, Legay LF. Depression during pregnancy: prevalence and risk factors among women attending a public health clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cadernos de Saude Publica. 2009;25(12):2725–36. doi: 10.1590/s0102-311x2009001200019 20191163

50. Pottinger AM, Trotman-Edwards H, Younger N. Detecting depression during pregnancy and associated lifestyle practices and concerns among women in a hospital-based obstetric clinic in Jamaica. General Hospital Psychiatry. 2009;31(3):254–61. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2009.02.002 19410104

51. Golbasi Z, Kelleci M, Kisacik G, Cetin A. Prevalence and Correlates of Depression in Pregnancy Among Turkish Women. Maternal and Child Health Journal. 2010;14(4):485–91. doi: 10.1007/s10995-009-0459-0 19238527

52. Silva RA, Jansen K, Souza LD, Moraes IG, Tomasi E, Silva GD, et al. Depression during pregnancy in the Brazilian public health care system. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry. 2010 Jun;32(2):139–44 doi: 10.1590/s1516-44462010000200008 20658053

53. Kaaya SF, Mbwambo JK, Kilonzo GP, Van Den Borne H, Leshabari MT, Fawzi MC, et al. Socio-economic and partner relationship factors associated with antenatal depressive morbidity among pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Tanzania journal of health research. 2010;12(1):23–35. doi: 10.4314/thrb.v12i1.56276 20737826

54. Mohammad KI, Gamble J, Creedy DK. Prevalence and factors associated with the development of antenatal and postnatal depression among Jordanian women. Midwifery. 2011;27(6)

55. Nasreen HE, Kabir ZN, Forsell Y, Edhborg M. Prevalence and associated factors of depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: a population based study in rural Bangladesh. BMC Womens Health. 2011;11:22. doi: 10.1186/1472-6874-11-22 21635722

56. Lau Y, Yin L, Wang Y. Antenatal Depressive Symptomatology, Family Conflict and Social Support Among Chengdu Chinese Women. Maternal & Child Health Journal. 2011;15(8):1416–26.

57. Senturk V, Abas M, Berksun O, Stewart R. Social support and antenatal depression in extended and nuclear family environments in Turkey: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Psychiatry. 2011;11.

58. Faisal-Cury A, Savoia MG, Menezes PR. Coping style and depressive symptomatology during pregnancy in a private setting sample. The Spanish journal of psychology. 2012;15(1):295–305. doi: 10.5209/rev_sjop.2012.v15.n1.37336 22379719

59. Melo EF Jr, Cecatti JG, Pacagnella RC, Leite DFB, Vulcani DE, Makuch MY. The prevalence of perinatal depression and its associated factors in two different settings in Brazil. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2012;136(3):1204–8. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.11.023 22169251

60. Hartley M, Tomlinson M, Greco E, Comulada WS, Stewart J, le Roux I, et al. Depressed mood in pregnancy: Prevalence and correlates in two Cape Town peri-urban settlements. Reproductive Health. 2011;8(1):9.

61. Rochat TJ, Tomlinson M, Barnighausen T, Newell ML, Stein A. The prevalence and clinical presentation of antenatal depression in rural South Africa. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2011;135(1–3):362–73. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.08.011 21880372

62. Ajinkya S, Jadhav PR, Srivastava NN. Depression during pregnancy: Prevalence and obstetric risk factors among pregnant women attending a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai. Industrial Psychiatry Journal. 2013;22(1):37–40. doi: 10.4103/0972-6748.123615 24459372

63. Fisher J, Tran T, Duc Tran T, Dwyer T, Nguyen T, Casey GJ, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for symptoms of common mental disorders in early and late pregnancy in Vietnamese women: A prospective population-based study. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2013;146(2):213–9. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2012.09.007 23026129

64. Silva R, Jansen K, Souza L, Quevedo L, Barbosa L, Moraes I, et al. Sociodemographic risk factors of perinatal depression: a cohort study in the public health care system. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria. 2012;34(2):143–8. doi: 10.1590/s1516-44462012000200005 22729409

65. Lara MA, Natera-Rey G, Berenzon S, Juarez-Garcia F, Villatoro-Velazquez JA, Nieto L, et al. Intimate partner violence and depressive symptoms in pregnant Mexican women: national survey results. Revista de investigacion clinica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutricion. 2014;66(5):431–8. 25695386

66. Manikkam L, Burns JK. Antenatal depression and its risk factors: an urban prevalence study in KwaZulu-Natal. S Afr Med J. 2012;102.

67. Fadzil A, Balakrishnan K, Razali R, Sidi H, Malapan T, Japaraj RP, et al. Risk factors for depression and anxiety among pregnant women in Hospital Tuanku Bainun, Ipoh, Malaysia: Asia-Pacific Psychiatry. 5 (pp 7–13), 2013. doi: 10.1111/appy.12036 23857831

68. Jeong H-G, Lim J-S, Lee M-S, Kim S-H, Jung I-K, Joe S-H. The association of psychosocial factors and obstetric history with depression in pregnant women: Focus on the role of emotional support. General Hospital Psychiatry. 2013;35(4):354–8. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2013.02.009 23541804

69. Bindt C, Guo N, Bonle MT, Appiah-Poku J, Hinz R, Barthel D, et al. No association between antenatal common mental disorders in low-obstetric risk women and adverse birth outcomes in their offspring: results from the CDS study in Ghana and Cote D'Ivoire. PLoS One. 2013;8(11).

70. Dibaba Y, Fantahun M, Hindin MJ. The association of unwanted pregnancy and social support with depressive symptoms in pregnancy: evidence from rural Southwestern Ethiopia. BMC pregnancy and childbirth. 2013;13.

71. Assefa Gemta W. Prevalence and factors associated with antenatal depression among women following antenatal care at Shashemane health facilities, South Ethiopia. Annals of Global Health. 2015;81(1):90.

72. Guo N, Bindt C, Te Bonle M, Appiah-Poku J, Hinz R, Barthel D, et al. Association of antepartum and postpartum depression in Ghanaian and Ivorian women with febrile illness in their offspring: a prospective birth cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178(9):1394–402. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwt142 24013202

73. Dmitrovic BK, Dugalić MG, Balkoski GN, Dmitrovic A, Soldatovic I. Frequency of perinatal depression in Serbia and associated risk factors. International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 2013;60(6):528–32. doi: 10.1177/0020764013511067 24300083

74. Abujilban SK, Abuidhail J, Al-Modallal H, Hamaideh S, Mosemli O. Predictors of Antenatal Depression Among Jordanian Pregnant Women in Their Third Trimester. Health Care for Women International. 2014;35(2):200–15. doi: 10.1080/07399332.2013.817411 24020729

75. Aktas S, Yesilcicek Calik K. Factors Affecting Depression During Pregnancy and the Correlation Between Social Support and Pregnancy Depression. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2015;17(9).

76. Stewart RC, Umar E, Tomenson B, Creed F. A cross-sectional study of antenatal depression and associated factors in Malawi. Archives of Women's Mental Health. 2014;17(2):145–54. doi: 10.1007/s00737-013-0387-2 24240635

77. Weobong B, Soremekun S, Ten Asbroek AH, Amenga-Etego S, Danso S, Owusu-Agyei S, et al. Prevalence and determinants of antenatal depression among pregnant women in a predominantly rural population in Ghana: The DON population-based study. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2014;165:1–7. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.04.009 24882170

78. Waqas A, Raza N, Lodhi HW, Muhammad Z, Jamal M, Rehman A. Psychosocial factors of antenatal anxiety and depression in Pakistan: is social support a mediator? PLoS ONE; 2015;10(1).

79. Barrios YV, Gelaye B, Zhong Q, Nicolaidis C, Rondon MB, Garcia PJ, et al. Association of childhood physical and sexual abuse with intimate partner violence, poor general health and depressive symptoms among pregnant women.[Erratum appears in PLoS One. 2015;10(3)

80. De Oliveira Fonseca-Machado M, Alves LC, dos Santos Monteiro JC, Stefanello J, Nakano AMS, Haas VJ, et al. Depressive disorder in pregnant Latin women: Does intimate partner violence matter? Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2015;24(9–10):1289–99. doi: 10.1111/jocn.12728 25581085

81. Abdelhai R, Mosleh H. Screening for antepartum anxiety and depression and their association with domestic violence among Egyptian pregnant women. Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association. 2015;90(3):101–8. doi: 10.1097/01.EPX.0000471670.64665.8f 26544838

82. Mahenge B, Stockl H, Likindikoki S, Kaaya S, Mbwambo J. The prevalence of mental health morbidity and its associated factors among women attending a prenatal clinic in Tanzania. International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2015;130(3):261–5.

83. Rwakarema M, Premji SS, Nyanza EC, Riziki P, Palacios-Derflingher L. Antenatal depression is associated with pregnancy-related anxiety, partner relations, and wealth in women in Northern Tanzania: a cross-sectional study. BMC Women's Health. 2015;15:68. doi: 10.1186/s12905-015-0225-y 26329331

84. Heyningen TV, Myer L, Onah M, Tomlinson M, Field S, Honikman S. Antenatal depression and adversity in urban South Africa. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2016;203:121–9. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.05.052 27285725

85. Biratu A, Haile D. Prevalence of antenatal depression and associated factors among pregnant women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. Reprod Health. 2015;12:99. doi: 10.1186/s12978-015-0092-x 26514827

86. Bavle AD, Chandahalli AS, Phatak AS, Rangaiah N, Kuthandahalli SM, Nagendra PN. Antenatal Depression in a Tertiary Care Hospital. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine. 2016;38(1):31–5. doi: 10.4103/0253-7176.175101 27011399

87. George C, Lalitha AR, Antony A, Kumar AV, Jacob KS. Antenatal depression in coastal South India: Prevalence and risk factors in the community. International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 2016;62(2):141–7. doi: 10.1177/0020764015607919 26443716

88. Moshki M, Cheravi K. Relationships among depression during pregnancy, social support and health locus of control among Iranian pregnant women. International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 2016;62(2):148–55. doi: 10.1177/0020764015612119 26582784

89. Padmapriya N, Bernard JY, Liang S, Loy SL, Shen Z, Kwek K, et al. Association of physical activity and sedentary behavior with depression and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy in a multiethnic cohort of Asian women. Archives of Women's Mental Health. 2016;19(6):1119–28. doi: 10.1007/s00737-016-0664-y 27664104

90. Alvarado-Esquivel C, Sifuentes-Alvarez A, Salas-Martinez C. Unhappiness with the fetal gender is associated with depression in adult pregnant women attending prenatal care in a public hospital in Durango, Mexico. International Journal of Biomedical Science. 2016;12(1):36–41. 27127452

91. de Jesus Silva MM, Carvalho Leite EPR, Nogueira DA, Clapis MJ. Depression in pregnancy. Prevalence and associated factors. Investigacion & Educacion en Enfermeria. 2016;34(2):342–50.

92. de Moraes EV, Campos RN, Avelino MM. Depressive symptoms in pregnancy: The influence of social, psychological and obstetric aspects. Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetricia. 2016;38(6):293–300. doi: 10.1055/s-0036-1585072 27399924

93. Målqvist M, Clarke K, Matsebula T, Bergman M, Tomlinson M. Screening for Antepartum Depression Through Community Health Outreach in Swaziland. Journal of Community Health. 2016;41(5):946–52. doi: 10.1007/s10900-016-0175-9 26942766

94. Thompson O, Ajayi I. Prevalence of Antenatal Depression and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria. Depression Research and Treatment. 2016.

95. Ayele TA, Azale T, Alemu K, Abdissa Z, Mulat H, Fekadu A. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Antenatal Depression among Women Attending Antenatal Care Service at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. PLOS ONE. 2016;11(5)

96. Bisetegn TA, Mihretie G, Muche T. Prevalence and predictors of depression among pregnant women in debretabor town, northwest Ethiopia. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(9).

97. Bitew T, Hanlon C, Kebede E, Medhin G, Fekadu A. Antenatal depressive symptoms and maternal health care utilisation: a population-based study of pregnant women in Ethiopia. BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth. 2016;16(1):301.

98. Gelaye B, Addae G, Neway B, Larrabure-Torrealva GT, Qiu C, Stoner L, et al. Poor sleep quality, antepartum depression and suicidal ideation among pregnant women. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2017;209:195–200. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.11.020 27930912

99. Hu HQ, Zhang J, Zhao W, Tian T, Huang AQ, Wang LL. [The occurrence and determinants of anxiety and depression symptoms in women of six counties/ districts in China during pregnancy]. Chung-Hua Yu Fang i Hsueh Tsa Chih [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]. 2017;51(1):47–52. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2017.01.010 28056270

100. Shidhaye P, Shidhaye R, Phalke V. Association of gender disadvantage factors and gender preference with antenatal depression in women: a cross-sectional study from rural Maharashtra. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2017;09:09.

101. Coll CD, da Silveira MF, Bassani DG, Netsi E, Wehrmeister FC, Barros FC, et al. Antenatal depressive symptoms among pregnant women: Evidence from a Southern Brazilian population-based cohort study. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2017;209:140–6. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.11.031 27914247

102. Mossie TB, Sibhatu AK, Dargie A, Ayele AD. Prevalence of Antenatal Depressive Symptoms and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in Maichew, North Ethiopia: An Institution Based Study. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences. 2017;27(1):59–66. doi: 10.4314/ejhs.v27i1.8 28458491

103. Sahile MA, Segni MT, Awoke T, Bekele D. Prevalence and predictors of antenatal depressive symptoms among women attending Adama Hospital Antenatal Clinic, Adama, Ethiopia. International Journal of Nursing and Midwifery. 2017;9(5):58–64.

104. Rahman A, Bunn J, Lovel H, Creed F. Association between antenatal depression and low birthweight in a developing country. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2007;115(6):481–6. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2006.00950.x 17498160

105. Nasreen HE, Kabir ZN, Forsell Y, Edhborg M. Low birth weight in offspring of women with depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: Results from a population based study in Bangladesh. BMC Public Health. 2010;10.

106. Niemi M, Falkenberg T, Petzold M, Chuc NT, Patel V. Symptoms of antenatal common mental disorders, preterm birth and low birthweight: a prospective cohort study in a semi-rural district of Vietnam. Tropical Medicine & International Health. 2013;18(6):687–95.

107. Sanchez SE, Puente GC, Atencio G, Qiu C, Yanez D, Gelaye B, et al. Risk of spontaneous preterm birth in relation to maternal depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms. Journal of Reproductive Medicine. 2013;58(1–2):25–33. 23447915

108. Rao D, Kumar S, Mohanraj R, Frey S, Manhart LE, L. Kaysen D. The impact of domestic violence and depressive symptoms on preterm birth in South India. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2016;51(2):225–32. doi: 10.1007/s00127-015-1167-2 26747253

109. Wado YD, Afework MF, Hindin MJ. Effects of maternal pregnancy intention, depressive symptoms and social support on risk of low birth weight: A prospective study from Southwestern Ethiopia. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(5).

110. Mathers C. The global burden of disease: 2004 update: World Health Organization; 2008.

111. Mathers CD, Loncar D. Projections of Global Mortality and Burden of Disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS medicine. 2006;3(11):e442. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030442 17132052

112. Fisher J, Cabral de Mello M, Patel V, Rahman A, Tran T, Holton S, et al. Prevalence and determinants of common perinatal mental disorders in women in low- and lower-middle-income countries: a systematic review. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2012;90(2):139–49H.

113. Truijens SEM, Spek V, van Son MJM, Guid Oei S, Pop VJM. Different patterns of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Archives of Women's Mental Health. 2017;20(4):539–46. doi: 10.1007/s00737-017-0738-5 28593361

114. Bergink V, Kooistra L, Lambregtse-van den Berg MP, Wijnen H, Bunevicius R, van Baar A, et al. Validation of the Edinburgh Depression Scale during pregnancy. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2011;70(4):385–9. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.07.008 21414460

115. Chorwe-Sungani G, Chipps J. A systematic review of screening instruments for depression for use in antenatal services in low resource settings. BMC Psychiatry. 2017;17(1).

116. Chou F-H, Kuo S-H, Wang R-H. A Longitudinal Study of Nausea and Vomiting, Fatigue and Perceived Stress in, and Social Support for, Pregnant Women Through the Three Trimesters. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences.24(6):306–14. doi: 10.1016/S1607-551X(08)70157-8 18635416

117. Shyn SI, Hamilton SP. The genetics of major depression: Moving beyond the monoamine hypothesis. The Psychiatric clinics of North America. 2010;33(1):125–40. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2009.10.004 20159343

118. Underwood L, Waldie K, D’Souza S, Peterson ER, Morton S. A review of longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression. Archives of Women's Mental Health. 2016;19(5):711–20. doi: 10.1007/s00737-016-0629-1 27085795

119. Roomruangwong C, Epperson CN. Perinatal depression in Asian women: Prevalence, associated factors, and cultural aspects. Asian Biomedicine. 2011;5(2):179–93.

120. Stuart-Parrigon K, Stuart S. Perinatal Depression: An Update and Overview. Current Psychiatry Reports. 2014;16(9):468. doi: 10.1007/s11920-014-0468-6 25034859

121. Sparling TM, Henschke N, Nesbitt RC, Gabrysch S. The role of diet and nutritional supplementation in perinatal depression: a systematic review. Maternal & Child Nutrition. 2017;13(1).

122. Rechenberg K, Humphries D. Nutritional interventions in depression and perinatal depression. The Yale journal of biology and medicine. 2013;86(2):127–37. 23766734

123. Kaplan BJ, Crawford SG, Field CJ, Simpson JS. Vitamins, minerals, and mood. Psychological bulletin. 2007;133(5):747–60. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.133.5.747 17723028

124. Hart C, de Vet R, Moran P, Hatch SL, Dean K. A UK population-based study of the relationship between mental disorder and victimisation. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2012;47(10):1581–90. doi: 10.1007/s00127-011-0464-7 22202973

125. Teicher MH, Samson JA, Polcari A, McGreenery CE. Sticks, stones, and hurtful words: relative effects of various forms of childhood maltreatment. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(6):993–1000. doi: 10.1176/ajp.2006.163.6.993 16741199

126. Teicher MH, Samson JA. Annual Research Review: Enduring neurobiological effects of childhood abuse and neglect. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. 2016;57(3):241–66. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12507 26831814

127. World Helath Organization. Global and regional estimates of violence against women: prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and nonpartner sexual violence. 2013.

128. Accortt EE, Cheadle ACD, Dunkel Schetter C. Prenatal Depression and Adverse Birth Outcomes: An Updated Systematic Review. Maternal and Child Health Journal. 2015;19(6):1306–37. doi: 10.1007/s10995-014-1637-2 25452215

129. Szegda Kathleen, Markenson Glenn, Bertone-Johnson Elizabeth R., Chasan-Taber Lisa. Depression during pregnancy: a risk factor for adverse neonatal outcomes? A critical review of the literature. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. 2014;27(9):960–7.

130. Grigoriadis S, VonderPorten EH, Mamisashvili L, Tomlinson G, Dennis CL, Koren G, et al. The impact of maternal depression during pregnancy on perinatal outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2013;74(4):e321–e41. doi: 10.4088/JCP.12r07968 23656857

131. Grote NK, Bridge JA, Gavin AR, Melville JL, Iyengar S, Katon WJ. A meta-analysis of depression during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010;67.

132. Wadhwa PD, Glynn L, Hobel CJ, Garite TJ, Porto M, Chicz-DeMet A, et al. Behavioral perinatology: biobehavioral processes in human fetal development. Regulatory peptides. 2002;108(2–3):149–57. doi: 10.1016/s0167-0115(02)00102-7 12220739

133. Wadhwa PD, Entringer S, Buss C, Lu MC. The contribution of maternal stress to preterm birth: issues and considerations. Clin Perinatol. 2011;38(3):351–84. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2011.06.007 21890014

134. Azale T, Fekadu A, Hanlon C. Treatment gap and help-seeking for postpartum depression in a rural African setting. BMC Psychiatry. 2016;16(1):196.

135. Neggers Y, Goldenberg R, Cliver S, Hauth J. The relationship between psychosocial profile, health practices, and pregnancy outcomes. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(3):277–85. doi: 10.1080/00016340600566121 16553174

136. Kelly RH, Russo J, Holt VL, Danielsen BH, Zatzick DF, Walker E, et al. Psychiatric and substance use disorders as risk factors for low birth weight and preterm delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;100(2):297–304. doi: 10.1016/s0029-7844(02)02014-8 12151153

137. Borders AE, Grobman WA, Amsden LB, Holl JL. Chronic stress and low birth weight neonates in a low-income population of women. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;109(2 Pt 1):331–8. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000250535.97920.b5 17267833

Článek vyšel v časopise


2020 Číslo 1