Age and altitude of residence determine anemia prevalence in Peruvian 6 to 35 months old children

Autoři: Roberto Alfonso Accinelli aff001;  Juan Alonso Leon-Abarca aff001
Působiště autorů: Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú aff001;  Facultad de Medicina Alberto Hurtado, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú aff002;  Hospital Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0226846



A Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES, for Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar in Spanish) is carried out annually in Peru. Based on it, the anemia prevalence was 43.6% in 2016 and 43.8% in 2017 using the WHO cutoff value of 11 g/dL and the altitude-correction equation.


To assess factors contributing to anemia and to determine its prevalence in Peruvian children 6 to 35 months old.


We used the MEASURE DHS-based ENDES survey to obtain representative data for11364 children from 6 to 35 months old on hemoglobin and health determinants. To evaluate normal hemoglobin levels, we used the original WHO criterion of the 5th percentile in children without chronic malnutrition and then applied it to the overall population. Relationships between hemoglobin and altitude levels, usage of cleaning methods to sanitize water safe to drink, usage of solid fuels and poverty status were tested using methodology for complex survey data. Percentile curves were made for altitude intervals by plotting hemoglobin compared to age. The new anemia rates are presented in graphs by Peruvian political regions according to the degree of public health significance.


Hemoglobin increased as age and altitude of residence increased. Using the 5th percentile, anemia prevalence was 7.3% in 2016 and 2017. Children from low altitudes had higher anemia prevalence (8.5%) than those from high altitudes (1.2%, p<0.0001). In the rainforest area of Peru, anemia prevalence was highest (13.5%), while in the highlands it was lowest (3.3%, p<0.0001). With access to safe drinking water and without chronic malnutrition, anemia rates could be reduced in the rainforest by 45% and 33%, respectively.


Anemia prevalence in Peruvian children from 6 to 35 months old was 7.3% in 2016 and 2017.

Klíčová slova:

Anemia – Fuels – Hemoglobin – Children – Iron deficiency anemia – Malnutrition – Rainforests – Water resources


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