A multicenter case control study of association of vitamin D with breast cancer among women in Karachi, Pakistan

Autoři: Uzma Shamsi aff001;  Shaista Khan aff002;  Iqbal Azam aff003;  Aysha Habib Khan aff004;  Amir Maqbool aff005;  Mohammad Hanif aff005;  Tiffany Gill aff001;  Romaina Iqbal aff003;  David Callen aff001
Působiště autorů: School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia aff001;  Department of Surgery, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan aff002;  Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan aff003;  Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan aff004;  Department of Oncology, Karachi Institute of Radiation and Nuclear Medicine Hospital (KIRAN), Karachi, Pakistan aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225402



The prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy and breast cancer are both high among women living in Karachi, Pakistan.


A matched case control study was conducted in two hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan to evaluate the association of vitamin D (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D) concentrations, vitamin D supplementation and sun exposure with breast cancer among Pakistani women. A total of 411 newly diagnosed histologically confirmed primary breast cancer cases were enrolled and 784 controls, free of breast and any other cancers, were matched by age (year of birth ± 5 years), residence in the same geographic area and study site. Information was collected on sociodemographic history, history of vitamin D supplementation, past medical and obstetrical history, family history of breast cancer, sun exposure history, histopathology reports and anthropometric measurement and venous blood was collected to measure serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration.


Compared to patients with sufficient serum vitamin D (>30 ng/ml), women with serum vitamin D deficiency (<20ng/ml), had a higher risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.65, 95%CI: 1.10, 2.50). Women with history of vitamin D supplementation one year prior to enrollment, had significant protective effect against breast cancer (OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.43).

Conclusions and recommendation

Serum vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased risk of breast cancer, while vitamin D supplementation was associated with decreased risk of breast cancer. In Pakistani women, where vitamin D deficiency is common, raising and maintaining serum vitamin D at population level is a safe and affordable strategy. It may play a role in reducing the incidence of both vitamin D deficiency and breast cancer, particularly among poor women where the breast cancer mortality is highest due to limited resources for early detection, diagnosis, and treatment. The effects of vitamin D with regard to breast cancer risk in Karachi Pakistan should be further evaluated.

Klíčová slova:

Breast cancer – Cancer detection and diagnosis – Cancer prevention – Metaanalysis – Micronutrient deficiencies – Overexposure to sun – Vitamin D deficiency – vitamín D


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