Comparison of balance changes after inspiratory muscle or Otago exercise training

Autoři: Francesco Vincenzo Ferraro aff001;  James Peter Gavin aff002;  Thomas William Wainwright aff001;  Alison K. McConnell aff004
Působiště autorů: Department of Human Sciences and Public Health, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, England, United Kingdom aff001;  School of Health Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, England, United Kingdom aff002;  Orthopaedic Research Institute, Bournemouth University Research Institute, Bournemouth University, Bournemouth, England, United Kingdom aff003;  The Burrow, Christchurch, New Zealand aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article


The inspiratory muscles contribute to balance via diaphragmatic contraction and by increasing intra-abdominal pressure. We have shown inspiratory muscle training (IMT) improves dynamic balance significantly with healthy community-dwellers. However, it is not known how the magnitude of balance improvements following IMT compares to that of an established balance program. This study compared the effects of 8-week of IMT for community-dwellers, to 8-week of the Otago exercise program (OEP) for care-residents, on balance and physical performance outcomes. Nineteen healthy community-dwellers (74 ± 4 years) were assigned to self-administered IMT. Eighteen, healthy care-residents (82 ± 4 years) were assigned to instructor-led OEP. The IMT involved 30 breaths twice-daily at ~50% of maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP). The OEP group undertook resistance and mobility exercises for ~60 minutes, twice-weekly. Balance and physical performance were assessed using the mini Balance Evaluation System Test (mini-BEST) and time up and go (TUG). After 8-week, both groups improved balance ability significantly (mini-BEST: IMT by 24 ± 34%; OEP by 34 ± 28%), with no between-group difference. Dynamic balance sub-tasks improved significantly more for the IMT group (P < 0.01), than the OEP group and vice versa for static balance sub-tasks (P = 0.01). The IMT group also improved MIP (by 66 ± 97%), peak inspiratory power (by 31 ± 12%) and TUG (by -11 ± 27%); whereas the OEP did not. IMT and OEP improved balance ability similarly, with IMT eliciting greater improvement in dynamic balance, whilst OEP improved static balance more than IMT. Unlike IMT, the OEP did not provide additional benefits in inspiratory muscle function and TUG performance. Our findings suggest that IMT offers a novel method of improving dynamic balance in older adults, which may be more relevant to function than static balance and potentially a useful adjunct to the OEP in frailty prevention.

Klíčová slova:

Balance and falls – Elderly – Exercise – Knees – Muscle analysis – Muscle functions – Thoracic diaphragm – Walking


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