Head impulse compensatory saccades: Visual dependence is most evident in bilateral vestibular loss


Autoři: Jacob M. Pogson aff001;  Rachael L. Taylor aff001;  Leigh A. McGarvie aff001;  Andrew P. Bradshaw aff001;  Mario D’Souza aff004;  Sean Flanagan aff005;  Jonathan Kong aff002;  G. Michael Halmagyi aff001;  Miriam S. Welgampola aff001
Působiště autorů: Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Institute of Clinical Neuroscience, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia aff001;  Faculty of Health and Medicine, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia aff002;  Department of Psychology, Faculty of Science, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia aff003;  Department of Clinical Research, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia aff004;  Otolaryngology, Head and Neck and Skull Base Surgery, St Vincent’s Hospital, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia aff005;  Faculty of Medicine, University of NSW, Kensington, New South Wales, Australia aff006;  Department of Neurosurgery, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia aff007;  Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia aff008
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227406

Souhrn

The normal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) generates almost perfectly compensatory smooth eye movements during a ‘head-impulse’ rotation. An imperfect VOR gain provokes additional compensatory saccades to re-acquire an earth-fixed target. In the present study, we investigated vestibular and visual contributions on saccade production. Eye position and velocity during horizontal and vertical canal-plane head-impulses were recorded in the light and dark from 16 controls, 22 subjects after complete surgical unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD), eight subjects with idiopathic bilateral vestibular loss (BVL), and one subject after complete bilateral vestibular deafferentation (BVD). When impulses were delivered in the horizontal-canal plane, in complete darkness compared with light, first saccade frequency mean(SEM) reduced from 96.6(1.3)–62.3(8.9) % in BVL but only 98.3(0.6)–92.0(2.3) % in UVD; saccade amplitudes reduced from 7.0(0.5)–3.6(0.4) ° in BVL but were unchanged 6.2(0.3)–5.5(0.6) ° in UVD. In the dark, saccade latencies were prolonged in lesioned ears, from 168(8.4)–240(24.5) ms in BVL and 177(5.2)–196(5.7) ms in UVD; saccades became less clustered. In BVD, saccades were not completely abolished in the dark, but their amplitudes decreased from 7.3–3.0 ° and latencies became more variable. For unlesioned ears (controls and unlesioned ears of UVD), saccade frequency also reduced in the dark, but their small amplitudes slightly increased, while latency and clustering remained unchanged. First and second saccade frequencies were 75.3(4.5) % and 20.3(4.1) %; without visual fixation they dropped to 32.2(5.0) % and 3.8(1.2) %. The VOR gain was affected by vision only in unlesioned ears of UVD; gains for the horizontal-plane rose slightly, and the vertical-planes reduced slightly. All head-impulse compensatory saccades have a visual contribution, the magnitude of which depends on the symmetry of vestibular-function and saccade latency: BVL is more profoundly affected by vision than UVD, and second saccades more than first saccades. Saccades after UVD are probably triggered by contralateral vestibular function.

Klíčová slova:

Attention – Ears – Eye movements – Eyes – Learning – Reaction time – Reflexes – Vision


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