Radiocarbon dating of two old African baobabs from India


Autoři: Adrian Patrut aff001;  Arti Garg aff002;  Stephan Woodborne aff003;  Roxana T. Patrut aff001;  Laszlo Rakosy aff004;  Ileana Andreea Ratiu aff001;  Daniel A. Lowy aff005
Působiště autorů: Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Cluj-Napoca, Romania aff001;  Botanical Survey of India, Central Regional Centre, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India aff002;  iThemba LABS, Johannesburg, South Africa aff003;  Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Biology and Geology, Cluj-Napoca, Romania aff004;  Valor Hungariae, Deptartment of Science and Innovation, Budapest, Hungary aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227352

Souhrn

The article presents the radiocarbon investigation of the baobab of Jhunsi, Allahabad and the Parijaat tree at Kintoor, two old African baobabs from northern India. Several wood samples extracted from these baobabs were analysed by using AMS radiocarbon dating. The radiocarbon date of the oldest samples were 779 ± 41 BP for the baobab of Jhunsi and 793 ± 37 BP for the baobab of Kintoor. The corresponding calibrated ages are 770 ± 25 and 775 ± 25 calendar years. These values indicate that both trees are around 800 years old and become the oldest dated African baobabs outside Africa.

Klíčová slova:

Africa – Archaeological dating – Historical archaeology – India – Indian Ocean – Radioactive carbon dating – Trees – Wood


Zdroje

1. Baum DA. A systematic revision of Adansonia (Bombacaceae). Ann Missouri Bot Gard. 1995; 82: 440–471. doi: 10.2307/2399893

2. Wickens GE, Lowe P. The baobabs: pachycauls of Africa, Madagascar, and Australia. 1st ed. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-6431-9

3. Pettigrew JD, Bell KL, Bhagwandin A, Grinan E, Jilani N, Meyer J, et al. Morphology, ploidy and molecular phylogenetics reveal a new diploid species from Africa in the baobab genus Adansonia (Bombacoideae; Malvaceae). Taxon. 2012; 61: 1240–1250. doi: 10.1002/tax.616006

4. Cron GV, Karimi N, Glennon KL, Udeh CA, Witkowski ETF, Venter SM, et al. One African baobab species or two? Synonymy of Adansonia kilima and A. digitata. Taxon. 2016; 65: 1037–1049. doi: 10.12705/656.37

5. Baum DA, Small RL, Wendel JF. Biogeography and floral evolution of baobabs (Adansonia, Bombacaceae) as inferred from multiple data sets. Syst Biol. 1998; 47: 181–207. doi: 10.1080/106351598260879 12064226

6. Leong Pock Tsy JM, Lumaret R, Mayne D, Vall AO, Abutaba YI, Sagna M, et al. Chloroplast DNA phylogeography suggests a West African centre of origin for the baobab, Adansonia digitata L. (Bombacoideae, Malvaceae). Mol Ecol. 2009; 18(8): 1707–1715. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2009.04144.x 19302348

7. Patrut A, von Reden KF, Lowy DA, Alberts AH, Pohlman JW, Wittmann R, et al. Radiocarbon dating of a very large African baobab. Tree Physiol. 2007; 27: 1569–1574. doi: 10.1093/treephys/27.11.1569 17669746

8. Patrut A, Mayne DH, von Reden KF, Lowy DA, Van Pelt R, McNichol AP, et al. Fire History of a Giant African Baobab evinced by Radiocarbon Dating. Radiocarbon. 2010; 52(2–3): 717–726. doi: 10.1017/S0033822200045732

9. Patrut A, von Reden KF, Van Pelt R, Mayne DH, Lowy DA, Margineanu D. Age determination of large live trees with inner cavities: Radiocarbon dating of Platland tree, a large African baobab. Ann Forest Sci. 2011; 68: 993–1003. doi: 10.1007/s13595-011-0107-x

10. Patrut A, Woodborne S, Patrut RT, Rakosy L, Lowy DA, Hall G, et al. The demise of the largest and oldest African baobabs. Nat Plants. 2018; 4(7): 423–426. doi: 10.1038/s41477-018-0170-5 29892092

11. Patrut A, Mayne DH, von Reden KF, Lowy DA, Venter S, McNichol AP, et al. Age and Growth Rate Dynamics of an Old African Baobab determined by Radiocarbon Dating. Radiocarbon. 2010; 52(2–3): 727–734. doi: 10.1017/S0033822200045744

12. Patrut A, von Reden KF, Mayne DH, Lowy DA, Patrut RT. AMS radiocarbon investigation of the African baobab: Searching for the oldest tree. Nucl Instr Meth B. 2013; 294: 622–626. doi: 10.1016/j.nimb.2012.04.025

13. Patrut A, Woodborne S, von Reden KF, Hall G, Hofmeyr M, Lowy DA, et al. African Baobabs with False Inner Cavities: The Radiocarbon Investigation of the Lebombo Eco Trail Baobab. PLoS ONE. 2015; 10(1): e0117193. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117193 25621989

14. Patrut A, Woodborne S, von Reden KF, Hall G, Patrut RT, Rakosy L, et al. The growth stop phenomenon of baobabs (Adansonia spp.) indentified by radiocarbon dating. Radiocarbon. 2017; 59(2): 435–448. doi: 10.1017/RDC.2016.92

15. Maheshwari JR, The baobab tree: Disjunctive distribution and conservation. Biol Conserv.1971; 4(1), 557–60.

16. Singh M. Adansonia digitata in India. Soc Cacti Succ J. 2003; 111: 3–4.

17. Roy RK. Introduction and migration of ornamental trees to India. Chronica Hort. 2011; 51(1): 29–33

18. Roy RK, Kumar S, Goel AK. History, Myth and Conservation Threat of the African Baobab Tree in India. Chronica Hortic. 2013; 53(1): 26–30.

19. Mishra RK, Marde R, Joshi B, Srivatsava A, Joshi S. Review of Adansonia digitata L. (Gorakshi): A historical and endangered tree species in India. Int J Unani Integ Med. 2019; 3(2): 01–04.

20. Bell KL, Rangan H, Kull CA, Murphy DJ. The history of introduction of the African baobab (Adansonia digitata, Malvaceae: Bombacoideae) in the Indian subcontinent. R Soc Open Sci. 2015; 2: 150370. doi: 10.1098/rsos.150370 26473060

21. Rangan H, Bell KL. Elusive traces: baobabs and the African diaspora in South Asia. Environ Hist. 2015; 21: 103–133. doi: 10.3197/096734015X14183179969827

22. Patrut A, Patrut RT, Rakosy L, Bodis J, Lowy D, Forizs E, et al. African baobabs with double closed ring-shaped structures and two separate false cavities: Radiocarbon investigation of the baobab of Golconda Fort. Studia UBB Chemia. 2016; LXI(4): 21–30.

23. Varmah JC, Vaid KM. Baobab–The historic African tree at Allahabad. Indian For. 1978; 104(7): 461–464.

24. Sing RK, Garg A. Plight of the oldest baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) tree of India at Jhunsi, Allahabad. Indian For. 2016; 143(1): 67–68.

25. Loader NJ, Robertson I, Barker AC, Switsur VR, Waterhouse JS. An improved technique for the batch processing of small wholewood samples to α-cellulose. Chem Geol. 1997; 136(3): 313–317, doi: 10.1016/S0009-2541(96)00133-7

26. Sofer Z. Preparation of carbon dioxide for stable carbon isotope analysis of petroleum fractions. AnalChem. 1980; 52(8): 1389–1391. doi: 10.1021/ac50058a063

27. Vogel JS, Southon JR, Nelson DE, Brown TA. Performance of catalytically condensed carbon for use in accelerator mass-spectrometry. Nucl Instr Meth B. 1984; 5: 289–293. doi: 10.1016/0168-583X(84)90529-9

28. Mbele VL, Mullins SM, Winkler SR, Woodborne S. Acceptance Tests for AMS Radiocarbon Measurements at iThemba LABS, Gauteng, South Africa. Phys Procedia. 2017; 90: 10–16. doi: 10.1016/j.phpro.2017.09.009

29. Bronk Ramsey C. Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon. 2009; 51: 337–360. doi: 10.1017/S0033822200033865

30. Reimer PJ, Bard E, Bayliss A, Beck JW, Blackwell PG, Bronk Ramsey C, et al. IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves, 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon. 2013; 55: 1869–1887.

31. Patrut A, Woodborne S, Patrut RT, Rakosy L, Hall G, von Reden KF, et al. AMS Radiocarbon dating of old trees from dwarf baobab groves. AMS 14 International Conference, Ottawa (Canada); 2017.

32. Chapotin SM, Razanameharizaka JH, Holbrook NM. A biomechanical perspective on the role of large stem volume and high water content in baobab trees (Adansonia spp.; Bombacaceae). Am J Bot. 2006; 93(9): 1251–1264. doi: 10.3732/ajb.93.9.1251 21642189


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2020 Číslo 1