Investigating cumulative effects of pre-performance routine interventions in beach volleyball serving

Autoři: V. Vanessa Wergin aff001;  Jürgen Beckmann aff001;  Peter Gröpel aff003;  Christopher Mesagno aff004
Působiště autorů: Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany aff001;  School of Movement and Nutrition Science, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia aff002;  Division of Sport Psychology, Department of Sport Science, University of Vienna, Austria aff003;  School of Health and Life Sciences, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, Australia aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0228012


Pre-performance routines (PPRs) can be used in certain sports to minimize the effects of choking under pressure. This study aimed to investigate the cumulative effectiveness of PPR interventions on the accuracy of beach volleyball serves. Fifty-four beach volleyball players were randomly assigned to one of three PPR intervention groups or a control group. Participants performed 10 serves at a target on the opposite side of the beach volleyball court (pretest), were educated on a PPR intervention, and then completed 10 serves at the target under pressure that was induced through videotaping and ego-relevant instructions (posttest). The results indicated no difference in post-test serving accuracy among the intervention groups and the wait-list control group and no difference in effectiveness between cumulative and isolated PPR use. A possible explanation may be the inefficiency of the pressure manipulation. However, the null results related to isolated and cumulative PPR use under general (i.e., no pressure) conditions are still an important research finding. Future research should investigate the effectiveness of cumulative and other PPRs in other sports in general and under pressure.

Klíčová slova:

Analysis of variance – Anxiety – Cameras – Human performance – Psychology – Relaxation (psychology) – Right hemisphere – Sports


1. Baumeister RF. Choking under pressure: self-consciousness and paradoxical effects of incentives on skillful performance. Journal of personality and social psychology. 1984 Mar;46(3):610–620. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.46.3.610 6707866

2. Eysenck MW, Derakshan N, Santos R, Calvo MG. Anxiety and cognitive performance: Attentional control theory. Emotion. 2007 May;7(2):336–353. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.7.2.336 17516812

3. Oudejans RRD, Kuijpers W, Kooijman CC, Bakker FC. Thoughts and attention of athletes under pressure: Skill-focus or performance worries? Anxiety, Stress, & Coping. 2011;24(1):59–73. doi: 10.1080/10615806.2010.481331 20425657

4. Beilock SL, Carr TH. On the fragility of skilled performance: What governs choking under pressure? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 2001;130:701–725. doi: 10.1037/0096-3445.130.4.701

5. Masters R, Maxwell J. The theory of reinvestment. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2008 Sep;1(2):160–183. doi: 10.1080/17509840802287218

6. Mesagno C, Beckmann J. Choking under pressure: theoretical models and interventions. Current opinion in psychology. 2017 Aug;16:170–175. doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.05.015 28813345

7. Gröpel P, Mesagno C. Choking interventions in sports: A systematic review. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2017 Nov;12(1):176–201. doi: 10.1080/1750984X.2017.1408134

8. Mesagno C, Beckmann J, Wergin VV, Gröpel P. Primed to perform: Comparing different pre-performance routine interventions to improve accuracy in closed, self-paced motor tasks. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2019 Jul;43:73–81. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2019.01.001

9. Mesagno C, Hill DM, Larkin P. Examining the accuracy and in-game performance effects between pre- and post-performance routines: A mixed methods study. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2015 Jul;19:85–94. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.03.005

10. Beckmann J, Gröpel P, Ehrlenspiel F. Preventing motor skill failure through hemisphere-specific priming: Cases from choking under pressure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 2013 Aug;142(3):679. doi: 10.1037/a0029852 22946898

11. Gröpel P, Beckmann J. A pre-performance routine to optimize competition performance in artistic gymnastics. The Sport Psychologist. 2017 Jun 1;31(2):199–207. doi: 10.1123/tsp.2016-0054

12. Cotterill ST. Pre-performance routines in sport: Current understanding and future directions. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2010 Nov;3(2):132–153. doi: 10.1080/1750984X.2010.488269

13. Hazell J, Cotterill ST, Hill DM. An exploration of pre-performance routines, self-efficacy, anxiety and performance in semi-professional soccer. European Journal of Sport Science. 2014 Feb;14(6):603–610. doi: 10.1080/17461391.2014.888484 24559097

14. Harle SK, Vickers JN. Training quiet eye improves accuracy in the basketball free throw. The Sport Psychologist. 2001 Sep 1;15(3):289–305.

15. Beauchamp PH, Halliwell WR, Fournier JF, Koestner R. Effects of cognitive-behavioral psychological skills training on the motivation, preparation, and putting performance of novice golfers. The Sport Psychologist. 1996 Jun 1;10(2):157–70. doi: 10.1123/tsp.10.2.157

16. Mesagno C, Marchant D, Morris T. A pre-performance routine to alleviate choking in “choking-susceptible” athletes. The sport psychologist. 2008 Dec 1;22(4):439–457. doi: 10.1123/tsp.22.4.439

17. Singer RN. Performance and human factors: Considerations about cognition and attention for self-paced and externally-paced events. Ergonomics. 2000;43(10):1661–1680. doi: 10.1080/001401300750004078 11083145

18. Lidor R, Mayan Z. Can beginning learners benefit from preperformance routines when serving in volleyball?. The Sport Psychologist. 2005 Dec 1;19(4):343–63. doi: 10.1123/tsp.19.4.343

19. Mccann P, Lavallee D, Lavallee R. The effect of pre-shot routines on golf wedge shot performance. European Journal of Sport Science. 2001 Dec 1;1(5):1–10. doi: 10.1080/17461390100071503

20. Mesagno C, Mullane-Grant T. A comparison of different pre-performance routines as possible choking interventions. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 2010 Jul 23;22(3):343–360. doi: 10.1080/10413200.2010.491780

21. Babiloni C, Marzano N, Infarinato F, Iacoboni M, Rizza G, Aschieri P, Cibelli G, Soricelli A, Eusebi F, Del Percio C. “Neural efficiency” of experts’ brain during judgment of actions: a high-resolution EEG study in elite and amateur karate athletes. Behavioural brain research. 2010 Mar 5;207(2):466–475. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2009.10.034 19891991

22. Crews DJ. What your brain is doing when you putt. Golf Digest. 2004;1:100–101.

23. Gallicchio G, Cooke A, Ring C. Lower left temporal-frontal connectivity characterizes expert and accurate performance: High-alpha T7-Fz connectivity as a marker of conscious processing during movement. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology. 2016 Feb;5(1):14–24. doi: 10.1037/spy0000055

24. Harmon-Jones E. (2006). Unilateral right-hand contractions cause contralateral alpha power suppression and approach motivational affective experience. Psychophysiology, 43, 598–603. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2006.00465.x 17076816

25. Peterson C. K., Shackman A. J., & Harmon-Jones E. (2008). The role of asymmetrical frontal cortical activity in aggression. Psychophysiology, 45, 86–92. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2007.00597.x 17850239

26. Cross-Villasana F, Gröpel P, Doppelmayr M, Beckmann J. Unilateral left-hand contractions produce widespread depression of cortical activity after their execution. PloS one. 2015 Dec 28;10(12):e0145867. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145867 26709832

27. Del Percio C, Babiloni C, Bertollo M, Marzano N, Iacoboni M, Infarinato F, Lizio R, Stocchi M, Robazza C, Cibelli G, Comani S. Visuo-attentional and sensorimotor alpha rhythms arerelated to visuo-motor performance in athletes. Human brain mapping. 2009 Nov;30(11):3527–3540. doi: 10.1002/hbm.20776 19350556

28. Hatfield BD, Haufler AJ, Hung TM, Spalding TW. Electroencephalographic studies of skilled psychomotor performance. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology. 2004 May; 21(3), 144–156. doi: 10.1097/00004691-200405000-00003 15375345

29. Kais K, Raudsepp L. Cognitive and somatic anxiety and self-confidence in athletic performance of beach volleyball. Perceptual and motor skills. 2004 Apr;98(2):439–449. doi: 10.2466/pms.98.2.439-449 15141908

30. Kais K, Raudsepp L. Intensity and direction of competitive state anxiety, self-confidence and athletic performance. Kinesiology: International journal of fundamental and applied kinesiology. 2005 Jul 1;37(1):13–20.

31. Faul F, Erdfelder E, Lang AG, Buchner A. G* Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior research methods. 2007 May 1;39(2):175–191. doi: 10.3758/bf03193146 17695343

32. Krane V. The mental readiness form as a measure of competitive state anxiety. The Sport Psychologist. 1994 Jun 1;8(2):189–202. doi: 10.1123/tsp.8.2.189

33. Lautenbach F, Laborde S, Mesagno C, Lobinger BH, Achtzehn S, Arimond F. Nonautomated pre-performance routine in tennis: An intervention study. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 2015 Apr 3;27(2):123–131. doi: 10.1080/10413200.2014.957364

34. Boutcher SH, Crews DJ. The effect of a preshot attentional routine on a well-learned skill. International Journal of Sport Psychology. 1987; 18(1): 30–39.

35. Cohn PJ, Rotella RJ, Lloyd JW. Effects of a cognitive-behavioral intervention on the preshot routine and performance in golf. The sport psychologist. 1990 Mar 1;4(1):33–47. doi: 10.1123/tsp.4.1.33

36. Marlow C, Bull SJ, Heath B, Shambrook CJ. The use of a single case design to investigate the effect of a pre-performance routine on the water polo penalty shot. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 1998 Sep 1;1(3):143–155. doi: 10.1016/s1440-2440(98)80010-8 9783516

37. Koch C, Tilp M. Beach volleyball techniques and tactics: A comparison of male and female playing characteristics. Kinesiology. 2009 Jun 1;41(1): 52–58.

38. Michalopoulou M, Papadimitriou K, Lignos N, Taxildaris K, Antoniou P. Computer analysis of the technical and tactical effectiveness in Greek Beach Volleyball. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport. 2005 Jun 1;5(1):41–50. doi: 10.1080/24748668.2005.11868314

39. Liao CM, Masters RS. Self-focused attention and performance failure under psychological stress. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2002 Sep 1;24(3):289–305. doi: 10.1123/jsep.24.3.289 28682203

40. Gröpel P. Self-focused attention and motor skill failure: The moderating role of action orientation. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology. 2016 Aug 11;5(3):206–217. doi: 10.1037/spy0000059

41. Mesagno C, Harvey JT, Janelle CM. Choking under pressure: The role of fear of negative evaluation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2012 Jan 1;13(1):60–68. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.07.007

Článek vyšel v časopise


2020 Číslo 1