Gender differences influence over insomnia in Korean population: A cross-sectional study


Autoři: Yun Kyung La aff001;  Yun Ho Choi aff002;  Min Kyung Chu aff003;  Jung Mo Nam aff004;  Young-Chul Choi aff001;  Won-Joo Kim aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Neurology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea aff001;  Department of Neurology, Incheon St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Incheon, Republic of Korea aff002;  Department of Neurology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea aff003;  Department of Preventive Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea aff004
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227190

Souhrn

Study objectives

Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder with significant psychiatric/physical comorbidities in the general population. The aim of this study is to investigate whether socioeconomic and demographic factors are associated with gender differences in insomnia and subtypes in Korean population.

Method

The present study used data from the nationwide, cross-sectional study on sleep among all Koreans aged 19 to 69 years. The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) was used to classify insomnia symptoms and their subtypes (cutoff value: 9.5). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Goldberg Anxiety Scale (GAS) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) were used to measure sleep quality, anxiety and depression.

Results

A total of 2695 participants completed the survey. The overall prevalence of insomnia symptoms was 10.7%, including difficulty in initiating sleep (DIS) (6.8%), difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS) (6.5%) and early morning awakening (EMA) (6.5%), and these symptoms were more prevalent in women than in men. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender, shorter sleep time and psychiatric complications were found to be independent predictors for insomnia symptoms and subtypes. After adjusting for covariates among these factors, female gender remained a significant risk factor for insomnia symptoms and their subtypes. As for men, low income was related to insomnia.

Conclusion

Approximately one-tenth of the sample from the Korean general population had insomnia symptoms. The prevalence of insomnia symptom and the subtypes were more prevalent in women than men. Gender is an independent factor for insomnia symptoms.

Klíčová slova:

Anxiety – Depression – Educational attainment – Insomnia – Regression analysis – Schools – Sleep – Sleep disorders


Zdroje

1. Thase ME. Correlates and consequences of chronic insomnia. General hospital psychiatry 2005;27:100–12. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2004.09.006 15763121

2. Benca RM. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic insomnia: a review. Psychiatric services 2005;56:332–43. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.56.3.332 15746509

3. Léger D, Guilleminault C, Bader G, Lévy E, Paillard M. Medical and socio-professional impact of insomnia. Sleep 2002;25:621–5.

4. Cao X-L, Wang S-B, Zhong B-L, et al. The prevalence of insomnia in the general population in China: A meta-analysis. PloS one 2017;12:e0170772. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170772 28234940

5. Yeo B, Perera I, Kok L, Tsoi W. Insomnia in the community. Singapore Med J 1996;37:282–4. 8942230

6. Kim K, Uchiyama M, Okawa M, Liu X, Ogihara R. An epidemiological study of insomnia among the Japanese general population. Sleep 2000;23:41–7. 10678464

7. Ohayon MM, Hong S-C. Prevalence of insomnia and associated factors in South Korea. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2002;53:593–600. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3999(02)00449-x 12127177

8. Daley M, Morin CM, LeBlanc M, Grégoire J-P, Savard J. The economic burden of insomnia: direct and indirect costs for individuals with insomnia syndrome, insomnia symptoms, and good sleepers. Sleep 2009;32:55–64. 19189779

9. Ohayon MM. Epidemiology of insomnia: what we know and what we still need to learn. Sleep medicine reviews 2002;6:97–111. doi: 10.1053/smrv.2002.0186 12531146

10. Hara C, Stewart R, Lima-Costa MF, et al. Insomnia subtypes and their relationship to excessive daytime sleepiness in Brazilian community-dwelling older adults. Sleep 2011;34:1111–7. doi: 10.5665/SLEEP.1172 21804673

11. Henderson S, Jorm AF, Scott LR, Mackinnon AJ, Christensen H, Korten AE. Insomnia in the elderly: its prevalence and correlates in the general population. The Medical Journal of Australia 1995;162:22–4. 7845293

12. Foley DJ, Monjan AA, Brown SL, Simonsick EM, Wallace RB, Blazer DG. Sleep complaints among elderly persons: an epidemiologic study of three communities. Sleep 1995;18:425–32. doi: 10.1093/sleep/18.6.425 7481413

13. Chiu HF, Leung T, Lam LC, et al. Sleep problems in Chinese elderly in Hong Kong. Sleep 1999;22:717–26. doi: 10.1093/sleep/22.6.717 10505817

14. Bixler EO, Kales A, Soldatos CR, Kales JD, Healey S. Prevalence of sleep disorders in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The American Journal of Psychiatry 1979.

15. Ancoli-Israel S, Roth T. Characteristics of insomnia in the United States: results of the 1991 National Sleep Foundation Survey. I. Sleep 1999;22:S347–53. 10394606

16. Breslau N, Roth T, Rosenthal L, Andreski P. Sleep disturbance and psychiatric disorders: a longitudinal epidemiological study of young adults. Biological psychiatry 1996;39:411–8. doi: 10.1016/0006-3223(95)00188-3 8679786

17. Ohayon MM, Shapiro CM, Kennedy SH. Differentiating DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders in the general population: comorbidity and treatment consequences. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 2000;45:166–72. doi: 10.1177/070674370004500207 10742876

18. Weissman MM, Bland RC, Canino GJ, et al. Cross-national epidemiology of major depression and bipolar disorder. Jama 1996;276:293–9. 8656541

19. Ford DE, Kamerow DB. Epidemiologic study of sleep disturbances and psychiatric disorders: an opportunity for prevention? Jama 1989;262:1479–84. doi: 10.1001/jama.262.11.1479 2769898

20. Ohayon MM, Roth T. What are the contributing factors for insomnia in the general population? Journal of psychosomatic research 2001;51:745–55. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3999(01)00285-9 11750297

21. Tsai P-S, Wang S-Y, Wang M-Y, et al. Psychometric evaluation of the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (CPSQI) in primary insomnia and control subjects. Quality of Life Research 2005;14:1943–52. doi: 10.1007/s11136-005-4346-x 16155782

22. Zhang B, Wing Y-K. Gender differences in insomnia: a meta-analysis. Sleep 2006;29:85–93.

23. Pallesen S, Nordhus IH, Nielsen GH, et al. Prevalence of insomnia in the adult Norwegian population. Sleep 2001;24:771–9. 11683480

24. Li R, Wing Y, Ho S, Fong S. Gender differences in insomnia—a study in the Hong Kong Chinese population. Journal of psychosomatic research 2002;53:601–9. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3999(02)00437-3 12127178

25. Itani O, Jike M, Watanabe N, Kaneita Y. Short sleep duration and health outcomes: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. Sleep medicine 2017;32:246–56. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2016.08.006 27743803

26. Association AP. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®): American Psychiatric Pub, 2013.

27. Bastien CH, Vallières A, Morin CM. Validation of the Insomnia Severity Index as an outcome measure for insomnia research. Sleep medicine 2001;2:297–307. doi: 10.1016/s1389-9457(00)00065-4 11438246

28. Morin CM, Belleville G, Bélanger L, Ivers H. The Insomnia Severity Index: psychometric indicators to detect insomnia cases and evaluate treatment response. Sleep 2011;34:601–8. doi: 10.1093/sleep/34.5.601 21532953

29. Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry research 1989;28:193–213. doi: 10.1016/0165-1781(89)90047-4 2748771

30. Goldberg D, Bridges K, Duncan-Jones P, Grayson D. Detecting anxiety and depression in general medical settings. Bmj 1988;297:897–9. doi: 10.1136/bmj.297.6653.897 3140969

31. Kim JS, Kim YS, Lee GY, et al. The standardization of Korean-translated Goldberg’s shart screening scale for Anxiety and Depression. Journal of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine 1997;18:1452–60.

32. Pignone MP, Gaynes BN, Rushton JL, et al. Screening for depression in adults: a summary of the evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Annals of internal medicine 2002;136:765–76. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-136-10-200205210-00013 12020146

33. Choi HS, Choi JH, Park KH, et al. Standardization of the Korean version of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 as a screening instrument for major depressive disorder. Journal of the Korean Academy of Family Medicine 2007;28:114–9.

34. Nomura K, Yamaoka K, Nakao M, Yano E. Impact of insomnia on individual health dissatisfaction in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Sleep 2005;28:1328–32. doi: 10.1093/sleep/28.10.1328 16295219

35. Mong JA, Cusmano DM. Gender differences in sleep: impact of biological gender and gender steroids. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 2016;371:20150110.

36. Zhang J, Chan NY, Lam SP, et al. Emergence of gender differences in insomnia symptoms in adolescents: a large-scale school-based study. Sleep 2016;39:1563–70. doi: 10.5665/sleep.6022 27091537

37. Polo-Kantola P, Erkkola R, Helenius H, Irjala K, Polo O. When does estrogen replacement therapy improve sleep quality? American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 1998;178:1002–9.

38. Moline ML, Broch L, Zak R. Sleep in women across the life cycle from adulthood through menopause. Medical Clinics of North America 2004;88:705–36. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2004.01.009 15087212

39. Savard J, Hervouet S, Ivers H. Prostate cancer treatments and their side effects are associated with increased insomnia. Psycho‐Oncology 2013;22:1381–8. doi: 10.1002/pon.3150 22888075

40. Liu PY, Yee B, Wishart SM, et al. The short-term effects of high-dose testosterone on sleep, breathing, and function in older men. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2003;88:3605–13.

41. Cusmano DM, Hadjimarkou MM, Mong JA. Gonadal steroid modulation of sleep and wakefulness in male and female rats is genderually differentiated and neonatally organized by steroid exposure. Endocrinology 2014;155:204–14. doi: 10.1210/en.2013-1624 24189140

42. Baglioni C, Battagliese G, Feige B, et al. Insomnia as a predictor of depression: a meta-analytic evaluation of longitudinal epidemiological studies. Journal of affective disorders 2011;135:10–9. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.01.011 21300408

43. Kendler KS, Prescott CA, Myers J, Neale MC. The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for common psychiatric and substance use disorders in men and women. Archives of general psychiatry 2003;60:929–37. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.60.9.929 12963675

44. Gallo EAG, Munhoz TN, de Mola CL, Murray J. Gender differences in the effects of childhood maltreatment on adult depression and anxiety: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Child abuse & neglect 2018;79:107–14.

45. Gallo EAG, Munhoz TN, de Mola CL, Murray J. Gender differences in the effects of childhood maltreatment on adult depression and anxiety: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Child abuse & neglect 2018;79:107–14.

46. Barsky AJ, Peekna HM, Borus JF. Somatic symptom reporting in women and men. Journal of general internal medicine 2001;16(4):266–275 doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1497.2001.00229.x 11318929

47. Zhang J, Lam SP, Li SX, Tang NL. Insomnia, sleep quality, pain, and somatic symptoms: sex differences and shared genetic components. Pain 2012;153(3):666–673 doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2011.12.003 22277557

48. Johnson EO, Roth T, Schultz L, Breslau N. Epidemiology of DSM-IV insomnia in adolescence: lifetime prevalence, chronicity, and an emergent gender difference. Pediatrics 2006;117:e247–e56. doi: 10.1542/peds.2004-2629 16452333

49. Calhoun SL, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Vgontzas AN, Liao D, Bixler EO. Prevalence of insomnia symptoms in a general population sample of young children and preadolescents: gender effects. Sleep medicine 2014;15:91–5. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2013.08.787 24333223


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2020 Číslo 1