When weight is an encumbrance; avoidance of stairs by different demographic groups


Autoři: Frank F. Eves aff001
Působiště autorů: School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England, United Kingdom aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0228044

Souhrn

Background

Locomotion is an energy costly behaviour, particularly when it entails raising weight against gravity. Minimization of locomotor costs appears a universal default. Avoidance of stair climbing helps humans minimise their energetic costs. In public access settings, demographic subgroups that raise more ‘dead’ weight than their comparison groups when climbing are more likely to avoid stairs by choosing the escalator. Individuals who minimise stair costs at work, however, can accumulate a deficit in energy expenditure in daily life with potential implications for weight gain. This paper tests the generality of avoidance of stairs in pedestrians encumbered by additional weight in three studies.

Methods

Pedestrian choices for stairs or the alternative were audited by trained observers who coded weight status, presence of large bags and sex for each pedestrian. Sex-specific silhouettes for BMIs of 25 facilitated coding of weight status. Choices between stairs and a lift to ascend and descend were coded in seven buildings (n = 26,981) and at an outdoor city centre site with the same alternatives (n = 7,433). A further study audited choices to ascend when the alternative to stairs was a sloped ramp in two locations (n = 16,297). Analyses employed bootstrapped logistic regression (1000 samples).

Results

At work and the city centre site, the overweight, those carrying a large bag and females avoided both stair climbing and descent more frequently than their comparison groups. The final study revealed greater avoidance of stairs in these demographic subgroups when the alternative means of ascent was a sloped ramp.

Discussion

Minimization of the physiological costs of transport-related walking biases behaviour towards avoidance of stair usage when an alternative is available. Weight carried is an encumbrance that can deter stair usage during daily life. This minimization of physical activity costs runs counter to public health initiatives to increase activity to improve population health.

Klíčová slova:

Bioenergetics – Biological locomotion – Climbing – Decision making – Employment – Fats – Physical activity – Walking


Zdroje

1. Jakicic JM, Kraus WE, Powell KE, Campbell WN, Janz KF, et al., for the 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. Association between bout duration of physical activity and health: Systematic review. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2019;51: 1213–1219. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001933 31095078

2. Teh KC, Aziz AR. Heart rate, oxygen uptake, and energy cost of ascending and descending the stairs. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34: 695–99. doi: 10.1097/00005768-200204000-00021 11932581

3. Lewis A, Eves FF. Specific effects of a calorific expenditure intervention in overweight commuters. Ann Behav Med. 2011;42: 257–61. doi: 10.1007/s12160-011-9283-z 21618070

4. National Institute of Clinical Excellence, public health guidance 13 (2008) Workplace health promotion. www.nice.org.uk

5. Soler RE, Leeks KD, Buchanan LR, Brownson RC, Heath GW, Hopkins DH. Point-of-decision prompts to increase stair use; a systematic review update. Am J Prev Med. 2010;38: S292–S300. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2009.10.028 20117614

6. Eves FF. Effects of point-of-decision prompts for stair use depend on the alternative. Am J Prev Med. 2010;38: 573–574. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2010.02.004 20409507

7. Brownell KD, Stunkard A, Albaum J. Evaluation and modification of exercise patterns in the natural environment. Am J Psychiat. 1980;137: 1540–1545. doi: 10.1176/ajp.137.12.1540 7435710

8. Meyers AW, Stunkard AJ, Coll M, Cooke CJ. Stairs, escalators and obesity. Behav Mod. 1980;4: 355–359.

9. Eves FF. Is there any Proffitt in stair climbing? A headcount of studies testing for demographic differences in choice of stairs. Psychonom Bull Rev. 2014;21: 71–79.

10. McCardle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL. Exercise Physiology, 6th Edition. Philadelphia, US: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. 2007 doi: 10.1159/000097953

11. Dishman RK, Oldenburg B, O’Neal H, Shephard RJ. Worksite physical activity interventions. Am J Prev Med. 1998;15: 344–61. doi: 10.1016/s0749-3797(98)00077-4 9838977

12. Eves FF, Webb OJ. Worksite interventions to increase stair climbing; Reasons for caution. Prev Med. 2006;43: 4–7. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2006.03.011 16675007

13. Olander E, Eves FF. Elevator availability and its impact on stair use in a workplace. J Envir Psychol. 2011a;31: 200–206.

14. Kerr J, Eves FF, Carroll D. Getting more people on the stairs: The impact of a new message format. J Health Psychol. 2001a;6: 495–500. doi: 10.1177/135910530100600503 22049448

15. Eves FF, Lewis AL, Griffin C. Modeling effects of stair width on rates of stair climbing in a train station. Prev Med. 2008;47: 270–272. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.12.008 18207230

16. Kerr J, Eves FF, Carroll D. Can posters prompt stair use in a worksite environment? J Occ Health. 2001b;43: 205–207.

17. Blake H, Lee S, Stanton T, Gorely T. Workplace intervention to promote stair-use in an NHS setting. Int J Workplace Health Manag. 2008;1: 162–175.

18. Lewis A, Eves FF. Prompt before the choice is made; Effects of a stair climbing intervention in university buildings. Brit J Health Psych. 2012;17: 631–43.

19. Webb OJ, Eves FF. Effects of environmental changes in a stair climbing intervention: generalization to stair descent. Am J Health Prom. 2007;22: 38–44.

20. Kerr J, Eves FF, Carroll D. Six-month observational study of prompted stair climbing. Prev Med. 2011c;33: 422–427.

21. Eves FF, Webb OJ, Mutrie N. A workplace intervention to promote stair climbing: greater effects in the overweight. Obes. 2006;14: 2210–16.

22. Eves FF. All choices are not equal; effects of context on point-of-choice prompts for stair climbing. Obes Rev. 2008;9: 83–84. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2007.00372.x 18154604

23. Gärling T, Gärling E. Distance minimization in downtown pedestrian shopping. Environ Plan A. 1988;20: 547–554.

24. Eves FF, Olander EK, Nicoll G, Puig-Ribera A, Griffin C. Increasing stair climbing in a train station; effects of contextual variables and visibility. J Envir Psychol. 2009;29: 300–03.

25. Ouellette JA, Wood W. Habit and intention in everyday life: The multiple processes by which past behavior predicts future behavior. Psychol Bull. 1998;124: 54–74.

26. Verplanken B, Aarts H. Habit, attitude and planned behaviour: Is habit an empty construct or an interesting case of goal-directed automaticity. In Stroebe W, Hewstone M. (Eds.), Europe Rev Soc Psychol. 1999;10: p. 101–134. Chichester, England: John Wiley.

27. Eves FF, Puig-Ribera A. Learnt effects of environmental cues on transport-related walking; disrupting habits with health promotion? PLoS ONE. 2019;14: e0220308. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0220308 31369609

28. Riener R, Rabuffetti M, Frigo C. Stair ascent and descent at different inclinations. Gait Posture. 2002;15: 32–44. doi: 10.1016/s0966-6362(01)00162-x 11809579

29. Corlett E, Hutcheson C, DeLugan M, Rogozenski J. Ramps or stairs: The choice using physiological and biomechanic criteria. Applied Ergonomics. 1972;3: 195–201. doi: 10.1016/0003-6870(72)90100-7 15677102

30. Srinivasan M. Optimal speed for walking and running, and walking on a moving walkway. Chaos. 2009;19: 026112 1–10.

31. Selinger JC, O’Connor SM, Wong JD, Donelan JM. (2015). Humans can continuously optimize energetic cost during walking. Current Biol. 2015;25: 2452–2456.

32. Steudel-Numbers KL, Wall-Scheffler CM. Optimal running speed and the evolution of hominin hunting strategies. J Human Evol. 2009;56: 355–60.

33. Hoyt DF, Taylor CR. Gait and energetics of locomotion in horses. Nature. 1981;292; 239–40.

34. Nishii J. Legged insects select the optimal locomotor pattern based on energetic cost. Biol Cyber. 2000;83: 435.

35. Prokop T, Schubert M, Berger W. Visual influences on human locomotion. Exper Brain Res. 1997;114: 63–70.

36. Reiser JJ, Pick HL, Ashmead DH, Garing AE. Calibration of human locomotion and models of perceptual-motor organisation. J Exper Psychol; Human Perc Perf. 1995;21: 480–497.

37. White E, Shockley K, Riley MA. Multimodally specified energy expenditure and action-based distance judgments. Psychon Bull Rev. 2013;20: 1371–1377. doi: 10.3758/s13423-013-0462-8 23797989

38. Zadra JR. Proffitt DR. Optic flow is calibrated to walking effort. Psychon Bull Rev. 2016;23: 1491–1496. doi: 10.3758/s13423-016-1017-6 27012862

39. Thorpe SKS, Crompton RH, McNeil Alexander R. Orangutans use compliant branches to lower the energetic cost of locomotion. Biol Letters. 2007;3: 253–56.

40. Wall J, Douglas-Hamilton I, Vollrath F. Elephants avoid costly mountaineering. Current Biol. 2006;16: R527–529.

41. Levine JA, Kotz CM. NEAT–non-exercise activity thermogenesis–egocentric and geocentric environmental factors vs. biological regulation. Acta Physiol Scand. 2005;184: 309–318. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-201X.2005.01467.x 16026422

42. Reeves ND, Spanjaard M, Mohagheghi AA, Baltzopoulos V, Maganaris CN. Older adults employ alternative strategies to operate within their maximum capabilities when ascending stairs. J Electromyog Kinesiol. 2009;19: e57–e68.

43. Eves FF. Thorpe SKS, Lewis A, Taylor-Covill GAH. Does perceived steepness deter stair climbing when an alternative is available? Psychonom Bull Rev. 2014;21: 637–644.

44. Proffitt DR. Embodied perception and the economy of action. Perspec Psychol Sci. 2006;1: 110–122.

45. Proffitt DR, Bhalla M, Gossweiler R, Midgett J. Perceiving geographical slant. Psychonom Bull Rev. 1995;2: 409–428.

46. Bhalla M, Proffitt DR. Visual-motor recalibration in geographical slant perception. J Exper Psychol; Human Perc Perf. 1999;25: 1076–1096.

47. Taylor-Covill GAH, Eves FF. Slant perception on stairs and screens: Effects of sex and fatigue in a laboratory environment. Perc. 2013;42: 459–69.

48. Schnall S, Zadra JR, Proffitt DR. Direct evidence for the economy of action: Glucose and the perception of geographical slant. Perc. 2010;39: 464–482.

49. Durgin F.H, Baird J.A, Greenburg M, Russell R, Shaughnessy K, Waymouth S. Who is being deceived? The experimental demands of wearing a backpack. Psychonom Bull Rev. 2009;16: 964–969.

50. Durgin FH, Klein B, Spiegel A, Strawser CJ, Williams M. The social psychology of perception experiments: Hills, backpacks, glucose and the problem of generalizability. J Exper Psychol; Human Perc Perf. 2012;38: 1582–1595.

51. Taylor-Covill GAH, Eves FF. When what we need influences what we see: Choice of energetic replenishment is linked with perceived steepness. J Exper Psychol; Human Perc Perf. 2014;40: 915–919.

52. Taylor-Covill GAH, Eves FF. Carrying a biological ‘backpack’; quasi-experimental effects of weight status and body fat change on perceived steepness. J Exper Psychol; Human Perc Perf. 2016;42: 331–338.

53. Franchak JM, Adolph KE. Gut estimates: Pregnant women adapt to changing possibilities for squeezing through doorways. Attention, Perc Psychophysics. 2014;26: 460–47.

54. Konczak J, Meeuwsen HJ, Cress ME. Changing affordances in stair climbing: The perception of maximum climbability in young and older adults. J Exper Psychol; Human Perc Perf. 1992;18: 691–697.

55. Levine JA, McCrady SK, Lanningham-Foster LM, Kane PH, Foster RC, Manohar CU. The role of free-living daily walking in human weight gain and obesity. Diabet. 2008;57: 548–54.

56. Ekelund U, Brage S, Besson H, Sharp S, Wareham NJ. Time spent being sedentary and weight gain in healthy adults: reverse or bidirectional causality? Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;88: 612–7. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/88.3.612 18779275

57. Metcalf BS, Hosking J, Jeffery AN, Voss LD, Henley W, et al. Fatness leads to inactivity but inactivity does not lead to fatness: a longitudinal study in children (EarlyBird 45). Arch Dis Child. 2011;96: 942–47. doi: 10.1136/adc.2009.175927 20573741

58. Pedisic Z, Grunseit A, Ding D, Chau JY, Banks E, et al. High Sitting Time or Obesity: Which Came First? Bidirectional Association in a Longitudinal Study of 31,787 Australian Adults. Obes. 2014;22: 2126–2130.

59. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee scientific report. Part F. Chapter 11. Promoting Regular Physical Activity. Department of Health and Human Services: Washington, DC, U.S, 2018; pp. 1–104.

60. National Health Service, UK (2018). Physical activity guidelines for adults. Retrieved from https://www.nhs.uk/live-well/exercise/

61. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2018). Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2nd edition [pdf]. Retrieved from https://health.gov/paguidelines/second-edition/pdf/Physical_Activity_Guidelines_2nd_edition.pdf

62. Sallis JF, Cervero RB, Ascher W, Henderson KA, Kraft MK, Kerr J. An ecological approach to creating more physically active communities. Ann Rev Public Health 2006;27: 297–322.

63. Bauman AE, Reis RS, Sallis JF, Wells JC, Loos RJF, Martin BW. Correlates of physical activity: why are some people physically active and others not? Lancet 2012;380: 258–71. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60735-1 22818938

64. Sallis JF, Cerin E, Conway TL, Adams MA, Frank LD, Pratt M, et al. Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide: a cross-sectional study. Lancet 2016;387: 2207–17. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01284-2 27045735


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2020 Číslo 1