Quo vadis Pantanal? Expected precipitation extremes and drought dynamics from changing sea surface temperature


Autoři: Dirk Thielen aff001;  Karl-Ludwig Schuchmann aff002;  Paolo Ramoni-Perazzi aff006;  Marco Marquez aff001;  Wilmer Rojas aff001;  Jose Isrrael Quintero aff001;  Marinêz Isaac Marques aff002
Působiště autorů: Laboratory of Landscape Ecology and Climate, Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research (IVIC), Caracas, Venezuela aff001;  National Institute for Science and Technology in Wetlands (INAU), Federal University of Mato Grosso, Computational Bioacoustics Research Unit (CO.BRA), Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil aff002;  Postgraduate Program in Zoology, Institute of Biosciences, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil aff003;  Zoological Research Museum A. Koenig, Department of Vertebrates, Bonn, Germany aff004;  University of Bonn, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bonn, Germany aff005;  Federal University of Lavras, Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil aff006;  Center of Model Simulation, University of Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela aff007;  Postgraduate Program in Ecology and Biodiversity Conservation, Institute of Biosciences, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil aff008
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227437

Souhrn

Climate change poses a critical threat to the Pantanal, the largest wetland in the world. Models indicate an increase in the frequency of extreme precipitation events and extended periods of drought. These changes can amplify consequences for Pantanal’s ecological functioning, which has already experienced intensive human modification of its hydrological system and environmental health. The present study analyzed the spatial and temporal dynamics of rainfall and resulting extremes in the Brazilian area of the Upper Paraguay River Basin (UPRB) along with a co-evaluation of the global Sea Surface Temperature data (SST). The predicted results indicate that wet extreme precipitation events will become more frequent in the highlands, while severe and prolonged droughts triggered by warming SSTs in the Northern Hemisphere (North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans) will affect the Pantanal. The linear relations between precipitation with SST of very specific oceanic regions and even from specific oceanic indexes obtained in the present study significantly improve the forecasting capacity, mainly from a resulting reduction to two months of the lead-time between SST warming to concomitant precipitation impacts, and by explaining 80% of Pantanal´s precipitation variation from major oceanic indexes (e.g., ENSO, PDO, NAO, ATL3). Current SST trends will result in inter- and intra-annual flooding dynamic alterations, drastically affecting the Pantanal ecosystem functioning, with consequences for wildlife diversity and distribution. Regarding the foreseeable global climate and land use change scenarios, the results from the present study provide solid evidence that can be used at different decision-making levels (from local to global) for identifying the most appropriate management practices and effectively achieving sustainability of the anthropic activity occurring in the Pantanal.

Klíčová slova:

Drought – Ecosystem functioning – El Niño-Southern Oscillation – Flooding – Meteorology – Ocean temperature – Rain – Surface temperature


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