Maternal depressive symptoms and children’s cognitive development: Does early childcare and child’s sex matter?


Autoři: Chantal Paquin aff001;  Sylvana M. Côté aff002;  Richard E. Tremblay aff002;  Jean R. Séguin aff002;  Michel Boivin aff008;  Catherine M. Herba aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Psychology, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada aff001;  Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, Montréal, Québec, Canada aff002;  Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada aff003;  INSERM U1219 Bordeaux Population Health Unit (BPH), University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France aff004;  Departments of Psychology and Pediatrics, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada aff005;  School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Population Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland aff006;  Department of Psychiatry and Addictology, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada aff007;  School of Psychology, Laval University, Québec, Québec, Canada aff008
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227179

Souhrn

Background

Maternal depressive symptoms (MDS) have been associated with poorer child cognitive development. Some studies have shown that childcare attendance moderates associations between MDS and child behavior problems, but we do not know if this is the case for children’s cognitive development. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated whether associations between MDS and child cognitive development differ for boys and girls at school entry.

Methods

This study used data from a population-based cohort study (n = 1364) comprising well-validated measures of children’s cognitive development including academic readiness and language development in kindergarten and reading and mathematics achievement in first grade. Information on MDS was collected repeatedly from the child's age of 5 months to 5 years and on childcare from 5 months to 4.5 years. Moderation analyses were conducted to evaluate the differential associations of MDS with children’s outcomes depending on the type of childcare attended and the child’s sex.

Results

Childcare type or child’s sex did not moderate associations between MDS and children’s cognitive outcomes except for MDS being associated with lower scores on reading achievement in first grade for girls with a very small effect size (sr2 = .003). Childcare attendance was associated with higher scores for children’s cognitive development, however these associations disappeared after adjusting for covariates including child, mother and family characteristics. Regardless of MDS and childcare type, boys had, even after adjusting for covariates, lower scores on academic readiness (sr2 = .029) and higher scores on mathematics achievement (sr2 = .004).

Conclusions

Children’s cognitive development at school entry was more strongly associated with maternal education, children’s age in kindergarten and number of months of schooling in first grade than MDS. Contrary to associations between MDS and child behavior problems, childcare attendance did not moderate associations between MDS and children’s cognitive development at school entry.

Klíčová slova:

Behavior – Birth weight – Depression – Children – Language – Mothers – Parenting behavior – Schools


Zdroje

1. Edwards CP, Susan M, Knoche L. Parent engagement and school readiness: Parent-child relationships in early learning. 2008.

2. Hill NE. Parenting and academic socialization as they relate to school readiness: The roles of ethnicity and family income. Journal of Educational Psychology. 2001;93(4):686.

3. Sohr-Preston SL, Scaramella LV. Implications of timing of maternal depressive symptoms for early cognitive and language development. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review. 2006;9(1):65–83. doi: 10.1007/s10567-006-0004-2 16817009

4. Ahun MN, Côté SM. Maternal depressive symptoms and early childhood cognitive development: A review of putative environmental mediators. Archives of women's mental health. 2019;22(1):15–24. doi: 10.1007/s00737-018-0870-x 29876681

5. Kiernan KE, Huerta MC. Economic deprivation, maternal depression, parenting and children's cognitive and emotional development in early childhood 1. The British Journal of Sociology. 2008;59(4):783–806. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-4446.2008.00219.x 19035922

6. Stein A, Malmberg LE, Sylva K, Barnes J, Leach P, team F. The influence of maternal depression, caregiving, and socioeconomic status in the post‐natal year on children's language development. Child: care, health and development. 2008;34(5):603–12.

7. Campbell SB, Matestic P, von Stauffenberg C, Mohan R, Kirchner T. Trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms, maternal sensitivity, and children's functioning at school entry. Developmental psychology. 2007;43(5):1202. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.43.5.1202 17723045

8. Paulson JF, Dauber S, Leiferman JA. Individual and combined effects of postpartum depression in mothers and fathers on parenting behavior. Pediatrics. 2006;118(2):659–68. doi: 10.1542/peds.2005-2948 16882821

9. Cox A, Puckering C, Pound A, Mills M. The impact of maternal depression in young children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 1987;28(6):917–28. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1987.tb00679.x 3436997

10. Conners-Burrow NA, Bokony P, Whiteside-Mansell L, Jarrett D, Kraleti S, McKelvey L, et al. Low-level depressive symptoms reduce maternal support for child cognitive development. Journal of Pediatric Health Care. 2014;28(5):404–12. doi: 10.1016/j.pedhc.2013.12.005 24503001

11. Lovejoy MC, Graczyk PA, O'Hare E, Neuman G. Maternal depression and parenting behavior: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review. 2000;20(5):561–92. doi: 10.1016/s0272-7358(98)00100-7 10860167

12. Gueron-Sela N, Camerota M, Willoughby MT, Vernon-Feagans L, Cox MJ. Maternal depressive symptoms, mother-child interactions, and children’s executive function. Developmental psychology. 2018;54(1):71. doi: 10.1037/dev0000389 28933882

13. Field T. Postpartum depression effects on early interactions, parenting, and safety practices: a review. Infant Behavior and Development. 2010;33(1):1–6. doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2009.10.005 19962196

14. Stein A, Pearson RM, Goodman SH, Rapa E, Rahman A, McCallum M, et al. Effects of perinatal mental disorders on the fetus and child. The Lancet. 2014;384(9956):1800–19.

15. Liu Y, Kaaya S, Chai J, McCoy D, Surkan P, Black M, et al. Maternal depressive symptoms and early childhood cognitive development: a meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine. 2017;47(4):680–9. doi: 10.1017/S003329171600283X 27834159

16. Brennan PA, Hammen C, Andersen MJ, Bor W, Najman JM, Williams GM. Chronicity, severity, and timing of maternal depressive symptoms: relationships with child outcomes at age 5. Developmental Psychology. 2000;36(6):759. doi: 10.1037//0012-1649.36.6.759 11081699

17. Ahun MN, Geoffroy M-C, Herba CM, Brendgen M, Séguin JR, Sutter-Dallay L, et al. Timing and chronicity of maternal depression symptoms and children's verbal abilities. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2017;190:251–7. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.07.007 28888562

18. Letourneau NL, Tramonte L, Willms JD. Maternal depression, family functioning and children's longitudinal development. Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 2013;28(3):223–34. doi: 10.1016/j.pedn.2012.07.014 22940454

19. Mensah FK, Kiernan KE. Parents’ mental health and children’s cognitive and social development. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2010;45(11):1023–35. doi: 10.1007/s00127-009-0137-y 19823757

20. Kersten-Alvarez LE, Hosman CM, Riksen-Walraven JM, van Doesum KT, Smeekens S, Hoefnagels C. Early school outcomes for children of postpartum depressed mothers: comparison with a community sample. Child Psychiatry & Human Development. 2012;43(2):201–18.

21. Comaskey B, Roos NP, Brownell M, Enns MW, Chateau D, Ruth CA, et al. Maternal depression and anxiety disorders (MDAD) and child development: A Manitoba population-based study. PloS One. 2017;12(5):e0177065. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177065 28542256

22. Murray L, Arteche A, Fearon P, Halligan S, Croudace T, Cooper P. The effects of maternal postnatal depression and child sex on academic performance at age 16 years: a developmental approach. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2010;51(10):1150–9. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02259.x 20840504

23. Shen H, Magnusson C, Rai D, Lundberg M, Le-Scherban F, Dalman C, et al. Associations of parental depression with child school performance at age 16 years in Sweden. JAMA Psychiatry. 2016;73(3):239–46. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.2917 26842307

24. Grace SL, Evindar A, Stewart D. The effect of postpartum depression on child cognitive development and behavior: a review and critical analysis of the literature. Archives of Women’s Mental Health. 2003;6(4):263–74. doi: 10.1007/s00737-003-0024-6 14628179

25. Murray L, Hipwell A, Hooper R, Stein A, Cooper P. The cognitive development of 5‐year‐old children of postnatally depressed mothers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 1996;37(8):927–35. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1996.tb01490.x 9119940

26. Japel C, Tremblay RE, Côté S. Quality counts! Choices. 2005;11(5).

27. Rigby E, Ryan RM, Brooks‐Gunn J. Child care quality in different state policy contexts. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management: The Journal of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management. 2007;26(4):887–908.

28. Côté SM, Doyle O, Petitclerc A, Timmins L. Child care in infancy and cognitive performance until middle childhood in the millennium cohort study. Child Development. 2013;84(4):1191–208. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12049 23331073

29. Geoffroy MC, Côté SM, Giguère CÉ, Dionne G, Zelazo PD, Tremblay RE, et al. Closing the gap in academic readiness and achievement: the role of early childcare. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2010;51(12):1359–67. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02316.x 20883519

30. Laurin JC, Geoffroy M-C, Boivin M, Japel C, Raynault M-F, Tremblay RE, et al. Child care services, socioeconomic inequalities, and academic performance. Pediatrics. 2015;136(6):1112–24. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-0419 26598459

31. Votruba-Drzal E, Coley RL, Koury AS, Miller P. Center-based child care and cognitive skills development: Importance of timing and household resources. Journal of Educational Psychology. 2013;105(3):821.

32. Giles LC, Davies MJ, Whitrow MJ, Warin MJ, Moore V. Maternal depressive symptoms and child care during toddlerhood relate to child behavior at age 5 years. Pediatrics. 2011:peds. 2010–3119.

33. Herba CM, Tremblay RE, Boivin M, Liu X, Mongeau C, Séguin JR, et al. Maternal depressive symptoms and children’s emotional problems: Can early child care help children of depressed mothers? JAMA Psychiatry. 2013;70(8):830–8. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.1361 23784556

34. Lee L-C, Halpern CT, Hertz-Picciotto I, Martin SL, Suchindran CM. Child care and social support modify the association between maternal depressive symptoms and early childhood behaviour problems: a US national study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 2006;60(4):305–10.

35. Radloff LS. Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 1997;19:340–56. doi: 10.1080/01688639708403863

36. Jenkins JM, Curwen T. Change in adolescents' internalizing symptomatology as a function of sex and the timing of maternal depressive symptomatology. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2008;47(4):399–405.

37. Poulin C, Hand D, Boudreau B. Validity of a 12-item version of the CES-D [Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale] used in the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth. Chronic Diseases and Injuries in Canada. 2005;26(2–3):65.

38. Vandell DL, Belsky J, Burchinal M, Steinberg L, Vandergrift N, NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. Do effects of early child care extend to age 15 years? Results from the NICHD study of early child care and youth development. Child development. 2010;81(3):737–56. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01431.x 20573102

39. National Institute of Child Health, Human Development Early Child Care Research Network. Child-care effect sizes for the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. American Psychologist. 2006;61(2):99–116. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.61.2.99 16478355

40. Chew AL, Morris JD. Validation of the Lollipop Test: A diagnostic screening test of school readiness. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1984;44(4):987–91.

41. Venet M, Normandeau S, Letarte M-J, Bigras M. Mesure et évaluation: Les propriétés psychométriques du Lollipop. Revue de Psychoéducation. 2003.

42. Dunn L, Dunn L. PPVT-R manual. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service; 1981.

43. Dunn LM, Theriault-Whalen C, Dunn L. Manual for échelle de vocabulaire en images Peabody. Toronto: Psycan. 1993.

44. Duncan GJ, Dowsett CJ, Claessens A, Magnuson K, Huston AC, Klebanov P, et al. School Readiness and Later Achievement. Developmental psychology. 2007;43(6):1428. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.43.6.1428 18020822

45. Romano E, Babchishin L, Pagani LS, Kohen D. School readiness and later achievement: Replication and extension using a nationwide Canadian survey. Developmental Psychology. 2010;46(5):995. doi: 10.1037/a0018880 20822218

46. Okamoto Y, Case R. II. Exploring the microstructure of children's central conceptual structures in the domain of number. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. 1996;61(1‐2):27–58. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5834.1996.tb00536.x 8657168

47. Gersten R, Jordan NC, Flojo JR. Early identification and interventions for students with mathematics difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 2005;38(4):293–304. doi: 10.1177/00222194050380040301 16122059

48. Kaufman AS, Kaufman NL. K-ABC—Kaufman assessment battery for children: Administration and scoring manual: American Guidance Service; 1983.

49. Kaufman AS, Kaufman NL, editors. Batterie pour l'examen psychologique de l'enfant1993: ECPA.

50. Duncan GJ, Gibson-Davis CM. Connecting child care quality to child outcomes: Drawing policy lessons from nonexperimental data. Evaluation Review. 2006;30(5):611–30. doi: 10.1177/0193841X06291530 16966678

51. Geoffroy M-C, Séguin JR, Lacourse É, Boivin M, Tremblay RE, Côté SM. Parental characteristics associated with childcare use during the first 4 years of life: Results from a representative cohort of Québec families. Canadian Journal of Public Health Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique. 2012;103(1):76. 22338333

52. Horta BL, Loret de Mola C, Victora CG. Breastfeeding and intelligence: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Acta Paediatrica. 2015;104:14–9. doi: 10.1111/apa.13139 26211556

53. Antoniou E, Fowler T, Thiery E, Southwood T, Van Gestel S, Jacobs N, et al. Intrauterine environment and cognitive development in young twins. Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease. 2013;4(6):513–21. doi: 10.1017/S2040174413000287 24924230

54. Richards M, Hardy R, Kuh D, Wadsworth ME. Birth weight and cognitive function in the British 1946 birth cohort: longitudinal population based study. BMJ. 2001;322(7280):199–203. doi: 10.1136/bmj.322.7280.199 11159613

55. Bates JE, Freeland CAB, Lounsbury ML. Measurement of infant difficultness. Child Development. 1979:794–803. 498854

56. Al-Hendawi M. Temperament, school adjustment, and academic achievement: existing research and future directions. Educational Review. 2013;65(2):177–205.

57. Hotz VJ, Pantano J. Strategic parenting, birth order, and school performance. Journal of Population Economics. 2015;28(4):911–36. doi: 10.1007/s00148-015-0542-3 26366045

58. Westerlund M, Lagerberg D. Expressive vocabulary in 18‐month‐old children in relation to demographic factors, mother and child characteristics, communication style and shared reading. Child: Care, Health and Development. 2008;34(2):257–66.

59. Bisanz J, Morrison FJ, Dunn M. Effects of age and schooling on the acquisition of elementary quantitative skills. Developmental Psychology. 1995;31(2):221.

60. Cunningham A, Carroll J. Age and schooling effects on early literacy and phoneme awareness. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. 2011;109(2):248–55. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2010.12.005 21315371

61. Cahan S, Davis D. A between-grade-levels approach to the investigation of the absolute effects of schooling on achievement. American Educational Research Journal. 1987;24(1):1–12.

62. Luyten H, Merrell C, Tymms P. The contribution of schooling to learning gains of pupils in Years 1 to 6. School Effectiveness and School Improvement. 2017;28(3):374–405.

63. Farrant BM, Zubrick SR. Parent-child book reading across early childhood and child vocabulary in the early school years: Findings from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. First Language. 2013;33(3):280–93.

64. Dollaghan CA, Campbell TF, Paradise JL, Feldman HM, Janosky JE, Pitcairn DN, et al. Maternal education and measures of early speech and language. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 1999;42(6):1432–43.

65. Boivin M, Pérusse D, Dionne G, Saysset V, Zoccolillo M, Tarabulsy GM, et al. The genetic‐environmental etiology of parents' perceptions and self‐assessed behaviours toward their 5‐month‐old infants in a large twin and singleton sample. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2005;46(6):612–30. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00375.x 15877767

66. Canada S. Overview of survey instruments for 1994–95 data collection, cycle 1. Statistics Canada; 1995.

67. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using multivariate statistics. Boston, MA, USA: Allyn & Bacon/Pearson Education; 2007.

68. Byles J, Byrne C, Boyle MH, Offord DR. Ontario Child Health Study: reliability and validity of the general functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device. Family process. 1988;27(1):97–104. doi: 10.1111/j.1545-5300.1988.00097.x 3360100

69. Desrosiers H, Boivin M, Des Groseilliers L. Concepts, Definitions and Operational Aspects,Part II–Data and Variables. Institut de la statistique du Québec, 2001 Contract No.: 12.

70. Hayes AF, Montoya AK. A tutorial on testing, visualizing, and probing an interaction involving a multicategorical variable in linear regression analysis. Communication Methods and Measures. 2017;11(1):1–30.

71. Seaman SR, White IR, Copas AJ, Li L. Combining multiple imputation and inverse‐probability weighting. Biometrics. 2012;68(1):129–37. doi: 10.1111/j.1541-0420.2011.01666.x 22050039

72. Vilagut G, Forero CG, Barbaglia G, Alonso J. Screening for depression in the general population with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D): A systematic review with meta-analysis. PloS One. 2016;11(5):e0155431. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0155431 27182821

73. Naicker K, Wickham M, Colman I. Timing of first exposure to maternal depression and adolescent emotional disorder in a national Canadian cohort. PloS One. 2012;7(3):e33422. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033422 22461893

74. Lanes A, Kuk JL, Tamim H. Prevalence and characteristics of postpartum depression symptomatology among Canadian women: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2011;11(1):302.

75. Warner RM. Applied statistics: From bivariate through multivariate techniques. Thousand Oaks, California, USA: Sage Publications, Inc.; 2008.

76. Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences. Second ed. New York: Hillsdale, NJ: erlbaum; 1988. 567 p.

77. Berry D, Blair C, Willoughby M, Garrett-Peters P, Vernon-Feagans L, Mills-Koonce WR, et al. Household chaos and children’s cognitive and socio-emotional development in early childhood: Does childcare play a buffering role? Early Childhood Research Quarterly. 2016;34:115–27. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2015.09.003 29720785

78. Beswick J, Willms JD, Sloat E. A comparative study of teacher ratings of emergent literacy skills and student performance on a standardized measure. Education. 2005;126(1):116.

79. Heyder A, Kessels U. Do teachers equate male and masculine with lower academic engagement? How students’ gender enactment triggers gender stereotypes at school. Social Psychology of Education. 2015;18(3):467–85.

80. Sinclair D, Murray L. Effects of postnatal depression on children's adjustment to school: Teacher's reports. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 1998;172(1):58–63.

81. Pearson RM, Bornstein MH, Cordero M, Scerif G, Mahedy L, Evans J, et al. Maternal perinatal mental health and offspring academic achievement at age 16: the mediating role of childhood executive function. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2016;57(4):491–501. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12483 26616637

82. Hughes C, Roman G, Hart MJ, Ensor R. Does maternal depression predict young children’s executive function?–a 4‐year longitudinal study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2013;54(2):169–77. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12014 23171379

83. Goodman SH, Rouse MH, Connell AM, Broth MR, Hall CM, Heyward D. Maternal depression and child psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review. 2011;14(1):1–27. doi: 10.1007/s10567-010-0080-1 21052833

84. Sabol TJ, Pianta RC. Patterns of school readiness forecast achievement and socioemotional development at the end of elementary school. Child Development. 2012;83(1):282–99. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01678.x 22103310

85. Véronneau M-H, Vitaro F, Brendgen M, Dishion TJ, Tremblay RE. Transactional analysis of the reciprocal links between peer experiences and academic achievement from middle childhood to early adolescence. Developmental Psychology. 2010;46(4):773. doi: 10.1037/a0019816 20604601

86. Van der Ende J, Verhulst FC, Tiemeier H. The bidirectional pathways between internalizing and externalizing problems and academic performance from 6 to 18 years. Development and Psychopathology. 2016;28(3):855–67. doi: 10.1017/S0954579416000353 27427810

87. Milgrom J, Holt C, Bleker L, Holt C, Ross J, Ericksen J, et al. Maternal antenatal mood and child development: an exploratory study of treatment effects on child outcomes up to 5 years. Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease. 2018:1–11.


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2020 Číslo 1