1. Morris J. Uses of Epidemiology. London, UK: Churchill Livingston; 1974.
2. Marmot M. The health gap: the challenge of an unequal world. London, UK: Bloomsbury; 2015.
3. Syme SL, Berkman LF. Social class, susceptibility and sickness. Am J Epidemiol. 1976;104(1):1–8. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a112268 779462
4. Townsend P. Why are the many poor? Int J Health Services. 1986;16(1):1–32.
5. Krieger N. Discrimination and health inequities. Int J Health Serv. 2014;44(4):643–710. doi: 10.2190/HS.44.4.b 25626224
6. Pachankis JE, Hatzenbuehler ML, Hickson F, Weatherburn P, Berg RC, Marcus U, et al. Hidden from health: structural stigma, sexual orientation concealment, and HIV across 38 countries in the European MSM Internet Survey. AIDS. 2015;29(10):1239–46. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000724 26035323
7. Hatzenbuehler ML, Keyes KM, Hasin DS. State-level policies and psychiatric morbidity in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(12):2275–81. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2008.153510 19833997
8. Butler RN. Age-ism: another form of bigotry. Gerontologist 1969; 9: 243–46. doi: 10.1093/geront/9.4_part_1.243 5366225
9. Levy BR. Age-stereotype paradox: opportunity for social change. Gerontologist. 2017; 57: S118–S26.
10. Levy BR. Stereotype embodiment: a psychosocial approach to aging. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 2009; 18: 332–36. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01662.x 20802838
11. Levy BR, Slade MD, Chang ES, Kannoth S, Wang SY. Ageism amplifies cost and prevalence of health conditions. Gerontologist 2018; published online November 13. doi: 10.1093/geront/gny131 30423119
12. Horton S, Baker J, Pearce G, Deakin JM. On the malleability of performance- implications for seniors. J Appl Gerontol. 2008; 27: 446–65.
13. Westerhof GJ, Miche M, Brothers AF, et al. The influence of subjective aging on health and longevity: a meta-analysis of longitudinal data. Psychol Aging. 2014; 29: 793–802. doi: 10.1037/a0038016 25365689
14. Lamont RA, Swift HJ, Abrams D. A review and meta-analysis of age-based stereotype threat: negative stereotypes, not facts, do the damage. Psychol Aging. 2015; 30: 180–93. doi: 10.1037/a0038586 25621742
15. Meisner BA. A meta-analysis of positive and negative age stereotype priming effects on behavior among older adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2012; 67: 13–17. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbr062 21746872
16. Sao Jose JMS, Amado CAF, Ilinca S, Buttigieg SC, Taghizadeh LA. Ageism in health care: a systematic review of operational definitions and inductive conceptualizations. Gerontologist 2017; published online May 16. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnx020 28510642
17. Harris K, Krygsman S, Waschenko J, Laliberte Rudman D. Ageism and the older worker: a scoping review. Gerontologist. 2018; 58: e1–14. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnw194 28082278
18. Levy B. Unconscious ageism. In: Palmore EB, Branch LG, Harris DK, editors. Encyclopedia of ageism. New York: Haworth Pastoral Press; 2005. p. 335–9.
19. Butler RN. Dispelling agesim: The cross-cutting intervention. Ann Am Acad Pol Soc Sci. 1989; 503:138–47.
20. Butler RN. Ageism. Generations. 2005;29(3):84–6.
21. Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare interventions: explanation and elaboration. BMJ (Clinical research ed). 2009; 339: b2700.
22. Steptoe A, Breeze E, Banks J, Nazroo J. Cohort profile: the English longitudinal study of ageing. Int J Epidemiol. 2013;42(6):1640–8. doi: 10.1093/ije/dys168 23143611
23. Sonnega A, Faul JD, Ofstedal MB, Langa KM, Phillips JW, Weir DR. Cohort Profile: the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Int J Epidemiol. 2014;43(2):576–85. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyu067 24671021
24. Ichimuru H, Hashimoto H, Shimizutani S. Japanese study of aging and retirement- JSTAR first results 2009 report. Tokyo: Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry, 2009.
25. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Live longer, work longer: A synthesis report. Paris, France: OECD Publishing 2006.
26. World Health Organization. WHO report on ageing and health. Geneva, Switzerland, 2015.
27. Baer B, Bhushan A, Taleb HA, Vasquez J, Thomas R. The right to health of older people. Gerontologist. 2016; 56S2: S206–17.
28. Williams DR, Yan Y, Jackson JS, Anderson NB. Racial differences in physical and mental health: Socio-economic status, stress and discrimination. J Health Psychol. 1997;2(3):335–51. doi: 10.1177/135910539700200305 22013026
29. Sarkisian CA, Steers WN, Hays RD, Mangione CM. Development of the 12-item Expectations Regarding Aging Survey. Gerontologist. 2005;45(2):240–8. doi: 10.1093/geront/45.2.240 15799989
30. Lawton MP. The Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale: a revision. J Gerontol. 1975;30(1):85–9. doi: 10.1093/geronj/30.1.85 1109399
31. Liang J, Bollen KA. The structure of the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale scale: a reinterpretation. J Gerontol. 1983;38(2):181–9. doi: 10.1093/geronj/38.2.181 6827034
32. Thomas J, Harden A. Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews. BMC medical research methodology. 2008; 8: 45. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-8-45 18616818
33. Popay P, Roberts H, Sowden AP, Arai L, Rodgers M. Guidance on the conduct of narrative synthesis in systematic reviews. A product from the ESRC methods programme. Lancaster, UK: Institute of Health Research, 2006.
34. Wells G, Shea B, O’Connell D, et al. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses, 2013. http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp (accessed Dec 1, 2018)
35. Higgins J, Green S. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews for interventions, version 5.1.0. London: The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011.
36. Downs SH, Black N. The feasibility of creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1998; 52: 377–84. doi: 10.1136/jech.52.6.377 9764259
37. Deeks JJ, Dinnes J, D'Amico R, Sowden AJ, Sakarovitch C, Song F, et al. Evaluating non-randomised intervention studies. Health Tech Assess. 2003;7: 1–173.
38. Radloff LS. The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas. 1977; 1:385–401.
39. Hamel MB, Teno JM, Goldman L, et al. Patient age and decisions to withhold life-sustaining treatments from seriously ill, hospitalized adults. SUPPORT Investigators. Study to understand prognoses and preferences for outcomes and risks of teatment. Ann Intern Med. 1999; 130: 116–25. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-130-2-199901190-00005 10068357
40. Paeck T, Ferreira ML, Sun C, Lin CW, Tiedemann A, Maher CG. Are older adults missing from low back pain clinical trials? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Arthritis Care Res. 2014; 66: 1220–26.
41. Levy BR, Ding L, Lakra D, Kosteas J, Niccolai L. Older persons' exclusion from sexually transmitted disease risk-reduction clinical trials. Sex Transm Dis. 2007; 34: 541–44. doi: 10.1097/01.olq.0000253342.75908.05 17297381
42. Morse AN, Labin LC, Young SB, Aronson MP, Gurwitz JH. Exclusion of elderly women from published randomized trials of stress incontinence surgery. Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 104: 498–503. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000136484.37027.79 15339759
43. Heiat A, Gross CP, Krumholz HM. Representation of the elderly, women, and minorities in heart failure clinical trials. Arch Intern Med. 2002; 162: 1682–88. doi: 10.1001/archinte.162.15.1682 12153370
44. Jennens RR, Giles GG, Fox RM. Increasing underrepresentation of elderly patients with advanced colorectal or non-small-cell lung cancer in chemotherapy trials. Int Med J. 2006; 36: 216–20.
45. Gupta P, Shekhar R, O'Mahony MS. Ageism and sexism in clinical research: are we making any progress? Age Ageing. 2013; 42S3:12.
46. Konrat C, Boutron I, Trinquart L, Auleley GR, Ricordeau P, Ravaud P. Underrepresentation of elderly people in randomised controlled trials. The example of trials of 4 widely prescribed drugs. PLoS One. 2012; 7: e33559. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033559 22479411
47. National Institute for Health. National Institute for Health (NIH) Clinical Trials.gov registration requirements. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ (accessed Dec 1, 2018)
48. Fitzsimmons PR, Blayney S, Mina-Corkill S, Scott GO. Older participants are frequently excluded from Parkinson's disease research. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2012; 18: 585–89. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2012.03.003 22494661
49. Kawai N, Kubo K, Kubo‐Kawai N. 'Granny dumping': Acceptability of sacrificing the elderly in a simulated moral dilemma. Jpn Psychol Res. 2014; 56: 254–62.
50. Bowling A, Mariotto A, Evans O. Are older people willing to give up their place in the queue for cardiac surgery to a younger person? Age Ageing. 2002; 31: 187–92. doi: 10.1093/ageing/31.3.187 12006307
51. Mariotto A, De Leo D, Buono MD, Favaretti C, Austin P, Naylor CD. Will elderly patients stand aside for younger patients in the queue for cardiac services? Lancet. 1999; 354: 467–70. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(98)12192-X 10465171
52. Shippee T, Schafer M, Shippee N, Rinaldo L. Long-term effects of age discrimination on mental health: The role of perceived financial hardship. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2017; published online March 14. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbx017
53. Marchiondo LA, Gonzales E, Williams LJ. Trajectories of perceived workplace age discrimination and long-term associations with mental, self-rated, and occupational health. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2017; published online July 12. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbx095 28977664
54. Viitasalo N, Nätti J. Perceived age discrimination atwork and subsequent long-term sickness absence among Finnish employees. J Occup Environ Med. 2015;57(7):801–5. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000000468 26147548
55. Lain D. Working past 65 in the UK and the USA: segregation into ‘Lopaq’ occupations? Work Employ Soc. 2012; 26: 78–94.
56. Rakowski W, Hickey T. Mortality and the attribution of health problems to aging among older adults. Am J Public Health. 1992; 82: 1139–41. doi: 10.2105/ajph.82.8.1139 1636837
57. Sargent-Cox KA, Anstey KJ, Luszcz MA. Longitudinal change of self-perceptions of aging and mortality. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2014; 69B: 168–73.
58. Kotter-Grühn D, Kleinspehn-Ammerlahn A, Gerstorf D, Smith J. Self-perceptions of aging predict mortality and change with approaching death: 16-year longitudinal results from the Berlin Aging Study. Psychology Aging. 2009; 24: 654–67. doi: 10.1037/a0016510 19739922
59. Maier H, Smith J. Psychological predictors of mortality in old age. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 1999; 54: P44–54. doi: 10.1093/geronb/54b.1.p44 9934395
60. Stewart TL, Chipperfield JG, Perry RP, Weiner B. Attributing illness to 'old age': consequences of a self-directed stereotype for health and mortality. Psychol Health. 2012; 27: 881–97. doi: 10.1080/08870446.2011.630735 22149693
61. Gu D, Dupre ME, Qiu L. Self-perception of uselessness and mortality among older adults in China. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2017; 68: 186–94. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2016.10.015 27835771
62. Zhao Y, Dupre ME, Qiu L, Gu D. Changes in perceived uselessness and risks for mortality: evidence from a national sample of older adults in China. BMC public health. 2017; 17: 561. doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4479-1 28599631
63. Levy BR, Slade MD, Kunkel SR, Kasl SV. Longevity increased by positive self-perceptions of aging. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2002; 83: 261–70. doi: 10.1037//0022-3518.104.22.1681 12150226
64. Levy BR, Myers LM. Relationship between respiratory mortality and self-perceptions of aging. Psychol Health. 2005; 20: 553–64.
65. Levy BR, Bavishi A. Survival advantage mechanism: inflammation as a mediator of positive self-perceptions of aging on longevity. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2018; 73: 409–12. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbw035 27032428
66. Top M, Eris H, Kabalcioglu F. Quality of life and attitudes toward aging among older women in Turkey. Affilia: J Women Social Work. 2012; 27: 406–19.
67. Cheng ST. Self-perception of aging and satisfaction with children's support. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2017; 72: 782–91. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbv113 26773312
68. Villiers-Tuthill A, Copley A, McGee H, Morgan K. The relationship of tobacco and alcohol use with ageing self-perceptions in older people in Ireland. BMC public health. 2016; 16: 627. doi: 10.1186/s12889-016-3158-y 27448397
69. Freeman AT, Santini ZI, Tyrovolas S, Rummel-Kluge C, Haro JM, Koyanagi A. Negative perceptions of ageing predict the onset and persistence of depression and anxiety: findings from a prospective analysis of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). J Affect Disord. 2016; 199: 132–38. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.03.042 27104801
70. Lu L, Kao S, Hsieh Y. Positive attitudes toward older people and well-being among Chinese community older adults. J Appl Gerontol. 2010; 29: 622–39.
71. Bai X, Lai DWL, Guo A. Ageism and depression: perceptions of older people as a burden in China. J Social Issues. 2016; 72: 26–46.
72. Gum AM, Ayalon L. Self-perceptions of aging mediate the longitudinal relationship of hopelessness and depressive symptoms. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2018; 33: 591–97. doi: 10.1002/gps.4826 29205512
73. Han J, Richardson VE. The relationships among perceived discrimination, self-perceptions of aging, and depressive symptoms: a longitudinal examination of age discrimination. Aging Ment Health. 2015; 19: 747–55. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2014.962007 25266167
74. Kim H. The mechanism of ageism: the relationship between perceived ageism and depressive symptoms in later life. Rejuvenation Res. 2016; 19: 97–98.
75. Kim I-H, Noh S, Chun H. Mediating and moderating effects in ageism and depression among the Korean elderly: the roles of emotional reactions and coping reponses. Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016; 7: 3–11. doi: 10.1016/j.phrp.2015.11.012 26981336
76. Kwak M, Ingersoll-Dayton B, Burgard S. Receipt of care and depressive symptoms in later life: the importance of self-perceptions of aging. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2014; 69B: 325–35.
77. Wight RG, LeBlanc AJ, Meyer IH, Harig FA. Internalized gay ageism, mattering, and depressive symptoms among midlife and older gay-identified men. Soc Sci Med. 2015; 147: 200–08. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.10.066 26588435
78. Wurm S, Benyamini Y. Optimism buffers the detrimental effect of negative self-perceptions of ageing on physical and mental health. Health Psychol. 2014; 29: 832–48.
79. Chun H, Kang M, Cho SI, Jung-Choi K, Jang SN, Khang YH. Does the experience of discrimination affect health? A cross-sectional study of Korean elders. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2015; 27: NP2285–95. doi: 10.1177/1010539513506602 24174391
80. Barker M, O'Hanlon A, McGee HM, Hickey A, Conroy RM. Cross-sectional validation of the Aging Perceptions Questionnaire: A multidimensional instrument for assessing self-perceptions of aging. BMC Geriatr. 2007; 26: 7–9.
81. Han J. The roles of self and society in the relationship between physical health, self-perception of aging, and depressive symptoms in later life [dissertation]. Ohio: Ohio State University, 2011.
82. O'Shea DM, Dotson VM, Fieo RA. Aging perceptions and self-efficacy mediate the association between personality traits and depressive symptoms in older adults. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2017;32(12):1217–25. doi: 10.1002/gps.4584 27653811
83. Han J. Chronic illnesses and depressive symptoms among older people: Functional limitations as a mediator and self-perceptions of aging as a moderator. J Aging Health. 2018; 30(8):1188–04. doi: 10.1177/0898264317711609 28555515
84. Levy BR, Pilver CE, Pietrzak RH. Lower prevalence of psychiatric conditions when negative age stereotypes are resisted. Soc Sci Med. 2014; 119: 170–74. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.06.046 25189737
85. Levy BR, Zonderman AB, Slade MD, Ferrucci L. Memory shaped by age stereotypes over time. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2012; 67B: 432–36.
86. Gu D, Brown BL, Qiu L. Self-perceived uselessness is associated with lower likelihood of successful aging among older adults in China. BMC geriatr. 2016; 16: 172. doi: 10.1186/s12877-016-0348-5 27716182
87. Seidler AL, Wolff JK. Bidirectional associations between self-perceptions of aging and processing speed across 3 years. GeroPsych. 2017; 30: 49–59.
88. Sutin AR, Stephan Y, Carretta H, Terracciano A. Perceived discrimination and physical, cognitive, and emotional health in older adulthood. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2015; 23: 171–79. doi: 10.1016/j.jagp.2014.03.007 24745563
89. Robertson DA, King-Kallimanis BL, Kenny RA. Negative perceptions of aging predict longitudinal decline in cognitive function. Psychol Aging. 2016; 31: 71–81. doi: 10.1037/pag0000061 26691302
90. Lee KE, Lee H. Priming effects of age stereotypes on memory of older adults in Korea. Asian J Soc Psychol. 2018; published online October 16. doi: 10.1111/ajsp.12343
91. Levy BR. Improving memory in old age through implicit self-stereotyping. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1996; 71: 1092–107. doi: 10.1037//0022-3522.214.171.1242 8979380
92. Levy BR, Slade MD, Murphy TE, Gill TM. Association between positive age stereotypes and recovery from disability in older persons. JAMA. 2012; 308: 1972–73. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.14541 23168819
93. Levy BR, Slade MD, Kasl SV. Longitudinal benefit of positive self-perceptions of aging on functional health. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2002; 57B: P409–17.
94. Sargent-Cox KA, Anstey KJ, Luszcz MA. The relationship between change in self-perceptions of aging and physical functioning in older adults. Psychol Aging. 2012; 27: 750–60. doi: 10.1037/a0027578 22390161
95. Tovel H, Carmel S, Raveis VH. Relationships among self-perception of aging, physical functioning, and self-efficacy in late life. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2017; published online May 25. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbx056 28549180
96. Madan AK, Aliabadi-Wahle S, Beech DJ. Age bias: a cause of underutilization of breast conservation treatment. J Cancer Educ. 2001; 16: 29–32. doi: 10.1080/08858190109528720 11270896
97. Madan AK, Cooper L, Gratzer A, Beech DJ. Ageism in breast cancer surgical options by medical students. Tenn Med. 2006; 99: 37–8, 41.
98. Madan AK, Aliabadi-Wahle S, Beech DJ. Ageism in medical students' treatment recommendations: the example of breast-conserving procedures. Acad Med. 2001; 76: 282–84. doi: 10.1097/00001888-200103000-00019 11242582
99. King D. Multiple jeopardy, multiple consciousness: The contents of a black feminist ideology. Signs. 1988;14:42–72.
100. Collins P. Black sexual politics: African Americans, gender, and the new racism. New York: Routledge; 2004.
101. Drydakis N, MacDonald P, Chiotis V, Somers L. Age discrimination in the UK labour market. Does race moderate ageism? An experimental investigation. Appl Econ Lett. 2018;25(1):1–4.
102. Klusmann V, Sproesser G, Wolff JK, Renner B, Neupert S. Positive self-perceptions of aging promote healthy eating behavior across the life span via social-cognitive processes. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2017; published online November 28. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbx139 29186555
103. Yeom HE. Association among ageing-related stereotypic beliefs, self-efficacy and health-promoting behaviors in elderly Korean adults. J Clin Nurs. 2014;23(9–10):1365–73. doi: 10.1111/jocn.12419 24252095
104. Levy BR, Hausdorff JM, Hencke R, Wei JY. Reducing cardiovascular stress with positive self-stereotypes of aging. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2000;55 (4):P205–13. doi: 10.1093/geronb/55.4.p205 11584877
105. Fasbender U, Wang M. Negative attitudes toward older workers and hiring decisions: Testing the moderating role of decision makers’ core self-evaluations. Front Psychol. 2017; 12(7): 2057.
106. North MS, Fiske ST. Resource scarcity and prescriptive attitudes generate subtle, intergenerational older-worker exclusion. J Soc Issues. 2016;72(1):122–45. doi: 10.1111/josi.12159 27499555
107. Bilinska P, Wegge J, Kliegel M. Caring for the elderly but not for one’s own old employees? Organizational age climate, age stereotypes, and turnover intentions in young and old nurses. J Pers Psychol. 2016;15(3):95–105.
108. Hofstetter H, Cohen A. The mediating role of job content plateau on the relationship between work experience characteristics and early retirement and turnover intentions. Personnel Review. 2014;43(3):350–76.
109. von Hippel C, Kalokerinos EK, Henry JD. Stereotype threat among older employees: Relationship with job attitudes and turnover intentions. Psychol Aging. 2013;28(1):17–27. doi: 10.1037/a0029825 22924658
110. Li X, Lv Q, Li C, Zhang H, Li C, Jin J. The relationship between expectation regarding aging and functional health status among older adults in China. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2013;45(4):328–35. doi: 10.1111/jnu.12036 23701671
111. Beyer AK, Wolff JK, Warner LM, Schüz B, Wurm S. The role of physical activity in the relationship between self-perceptions of ageing and self-rated health in older adults. Psychol Health. 2015;30(6):671–85. doi: 10.1080/08870446.2015.1014370 25720739
112. Kim SH. Older people's expectations regarding ageing, health-promoting behaviour and health status. J Adv Nurs. 2009;65(1):84–91. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2008.04841.x 19032514
113. Dordoni P, Van der Heijden B, Peters P, Kraus-Hoogeveen S, Argentero P. Keep up the good work! Age-moderated mediation model on intention to retire. Front Psychol. 2017;8:1717. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01717 29089905
114. Shrestha S, Zarit SH. Cultural and contextual analysis of quality of life among older Nepali women. J Cross Cult Gerontol. 2012; 27: 163–82. doi: 10.1007/s10823-012-9167-0 22648322
115. Shetty P. Grey matter: ageing in developing countries. Lancet. 2012; 379: 1285–87. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(12)60541-8 22489326
116. Pietrzak RH, Zhu Y, Slade MD, et al. Association between negative age stereotypes and accelerated cellular aging: evidence from two cohorts of older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016; 64: e228–30. doi: 10.1111/jgs.14452 27641354
117. Cheng ST, Chan AC. Filial piety and psychological well-being in well older Chinese. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2006; 61(5): 262–69.
118. Ng R, Allore HG, Trentalange M, Monin JK, Levy BR. Increasing negativity of age stereotypes across 200 years: evidence from a database of 400 million words. PLoS One. 2015; 10: e0117086. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117086 25675438
119. Spangenberg L, Zenger M, Glaesmer H, Brahler E, Strauss B. Assessing age stereotypes in the German population in 1996 and 2011: socio-demographic correlates and shift over time. Eur J Ageing. 2018; 15: 47–56.
120. Mason SE, Kuntz CV, McGill CM. Oldesters and Ngrams: Age stereotypes across time. Psychol Rep. 2015; 116: 324–329. doi: 10.2466/17.10.PR0.116k17w6 25650642
121. Button P. Population Aging, Age Discrimination, and Age Discrimination Protections at the 50th Anniversary of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act. NBER Working Paper No. 25850. 2019. 1–30.
122. Munnell A. H., & Rutledge M. The effects of the Great Recession on the retirement security of older workers. Ann Am Acad Pol Soc Sci. 2013. 650(1), 124–142.
123. Krosch AR, Amodio DM. Economic scarcity alters the perception of race. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111(25):9079–84. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1404448111 24927595
124. Fiske ST. Interpersonal stratification: Status, powerm and subordination. In: Fiske ST, Gilbert DT, Lindzey G, editors. Handbook of social psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2010. p. 941–82.
125. Levy SR. Toward reducing ageism: PEACE (Positive Education about Aging and Contact Experiences) model. Gerontologist. 2018;58(2):226–32. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnw116 27510755
126. Liu YE, Norman IJ, While AE. Nurses' attitudes towards older people: a systematic review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2013;50(9):1271–82. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.11.021 23265870
127. Liu YE, While AE, Norman IJ, Ye W. Health professionals' attitudes toward older people and older patients: a systematic review. J Interprof Care. 2012;26(5):397–409. doi: 10.3109/13561820.2012.702146 22780579
128. Stepanikova I. Racial-ethnic biases, time pressure, and medical decisions. J Health Soc Behav. 2012;53(3):329–43. doi: 10.1177/0022146512445807 22811465
129. Banzi R, Camaioni P, Tettamanti M, Bertele V, Lucca U. Older patients are still under-represented in clinical trials of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2016; 8: 32. doi: 10.1186/s13195-016-0201-2 27520290
130. Leinonen A, Koponen M, Hartikainen S. Systematic review: representativeness of participants in RCTs of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. PLoS One. 2015; 10: e0124500. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124500 25933023
131. Schoenmaker N, Van Gool WA. The age gap between patients in clinical studies and in the general population: a pitfall for dementia research. Lancet Neuro. 2004; 3: 627–30.
132. Herman RE, Williams KN. Elderspeak's influence on resistiveness to care: focus on behavioral events. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2009; 24: 417–23. doi: 10.1177/1533317509341949 19692706
133. Williams KN, Herman R, Gajewski B, Wilson K. Elderspeak communication: impact on dementia care. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2009; 24: 11–20. doi: 10.1177/1533317508318472 18591210
134. Levy BR, Ferrucci L, Zonderman AB, Slade MD, Troncoso J, Resnick SM. A culture-brain link: negative age stereotypes predict Alzheimer's disease biomarkers. Psychol Aging. 2016; 31: 82–88. doi: 10.1037/pag0000062 26641877
135. Barnow S, Linden M, Lucht M, Freyberger H-J. Influence of age of patients who wish to die on treatment decisions by physicians and nurses. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004; 12: 258–64. 15126226
136. Bouman WP, Arcelus J. Are psychiatrists guilty of "ageism" when it comes to taking a sexual history? Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2001; 16: 27–31. doi: 10.1002/1099-1166(200101)16:1<27::aid-gps267>3.0.co;2-s 11180482
137. Hajjar I, Miller K, Hirth V. Age-related bias in the management of hypertension: a national survey of physicians' opinions on hypertension in elderly adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2002; 57: M487–91. doi: 10.1093/gerona/57.8.m487 12145360
138. Arber S, McKinlay J, Adams A, Marceau L, Link C, O'Donnell A. Influence of patient characteristics on doctors' questioning and lifestyle advice for coronary heart disease: a UK/US video experiment. Br J Gen Pract. 2004; 54: 673–78. 15353053
139. Naylor CD, Levinton CM, Baigrie RS, Goldman BS. Placing patients in the queue for coronary surgery: do age and work status alter Canadian specialists' decisions? J Gen Intern Med. 1992; 7: 492–98. doi: 10.1007/bf02599450 1403204
140. Harries C, Forrest D, Harvey N, McClelland A, Bowling A. Which doctors are influenced by a patient's age? A multi-method study of angina treatment in general practice, cardiology and gerontology. Qual Saf Health Care. 2007; 16: 23–27. doi: 10.1136/qshc.2006.018036 17301199
141. Helmes E, Gee S. Attitudes of Australian therapists toward older clients: educational and training imperatives. Educ Gerontol. 2003; 29: 657–70.
142. Schroyen S, Missotten P, Jerusalem G, Gilles C, Adam S. Ageism and caring attitudes among nurses in oncology. Int Psychogeriatr. 2016; 28: 749–57. doi: 10.1017/S1041610215001970 26669734
143. Uncapher H, Arean PA. Physicians are less willing to treat suicidal ideation in older patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000; 48: 188–92. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2000.tb03910.x 10682948
144. Gewirtz-Meydan A, Ayalon L. Physicians' response to sexual dysfunction presented by a younger vs. an older adult. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2017; 32: 1476–83. doi: 10.1002/gps.4638 27981728
145. Kucharski LT, White RM Jr., Schratz M. Age bias, referral for psychological assistance and the private physician. J Gerontol. 1979; 34: 423–28. doi: 10.1093/geronj/34.3.423 429777
146. MacNeil RD. Attitudes toward the aged and identified employment preferences of therapeutic recreation students. Educ Gerontol. 1991; 17: 543–58.
147. Settin JM. Clinical judgement in geropsychology practice. Psychotherapy. 1982; 19: 397–404.
148. Johnson MF, Kramer AM. Physicians' responses to clinical scenarios involving life-threatening illness vary by patients' age. J Clin Ethic. 2000; 11: 323–27.
149. Kessler EM, Schneider T. Do treatment attitudes and decisions of psychotherapists-in-training depend on a patient's age? J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2017; published online June 13. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbx078 28633286
150. Kvitek SDB, Shaver BJ, Blood H, Shepard KF. Age bias: physical therapists and older patients. Gerontology. 1986; 41: 706–09.
151. Linden M, Kurtz G. A randomised controlled experimental study on the influence of patient age on medical decisions in respect to the diagnosis and treatment of depression in the elderly. Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res. 2009; 1–4.
152. Protiere C, Viens P, Rousseau F, Moatti JP. Prescribers' attitudes toward elderly breast cancer patients. Discrimination or empathy? Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2010; 75: 138–50. doi: 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2009.09.007 19854059
153. Ray DC, McKinney KA, Ford CV. Differences in psychologists' ratings of older and younger clients. Gerontologist. 1987; 27: 82–86. doi: 10.1093/geront/27.1.82 3557152
154. Schroyen S, Adam S, Marquet M, et al. Communication of healthcare professionals: is there ageism? Eur J Cancer Care. 2018; 27.
155. Stillman AE, Braitman LE, Grant RJ. Are critically ill older patients treated differently than similarly ill younger patients? West J Med. 1998; 169: 162–65. 9771155
156. Wiseman D. Patient characteristics that impact healthcare resource allocation choices: Relative impact of mental illness, age, and parental status. J Appl Soc Psychol. 2007; 37: 2072–85.
157. Yechezkel R, Ayalon L. Social workers' attitudes towards intimate partner abuse in younger vs. older women. J Fam Violence. 2013; 28: 381–91.
158. Votron L, D'Hoore W, Swine C, Daisne JF, Scalliet P. The opinion of general practitioners on the treatment of prostate and breast cancer in elderly people: results of a survey based on clinical models. Clin Oncol. 2004; 16: 474–78.
159. Levy BR, Pilver C, Chung PH, Slade MD. Subliminal strengthening: improving older individuals' physical function over time with an implicit-age-stereotype intervention. Psychol Sci. 2014; 25: 2127–35. doi: 10.1177/0956797614551970 25326508
160. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. World population ageing 2015.
161. Bustillos A, Fernández Ballesteros R. Attributions of competence mediate the behaviors of caregivers and older adults. GeroPsych. 2013; 26: 211–17.
162. Mejia ST, Gonzalez R. Couples' shared beliefs about aging and implications for future functional limitations. Gerontologist. 2017; 57S2: S149–59.
163. Cole ER. Intersectionality and research in psychology. Am Psycho. 2009; 64: 170–80.
164. Kelly UA. Integrating intersectionality and biomedicine in health disparities research. ANS Adv Nursing Sci. 2009; 32: E42–56.
165. Paradies Y. A systematic review of empirical research on self-reported racism and health. Int J Epidemiol. 2006; 35: 888–901. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyl056 16585055
166. Priest N, Paradies Y, Trenerry B, Truong M, Karlsen S, Kelly Y. A systematic review of studies examining the relationship between reported racism and health and well-being for children and young people. Soc Sci Med. 2013; 95: 115–27. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.11.031 23312306