Dispensing of antibiotics without prescription and associated factors in drug retail outlets of Eritrea: A simulated client method

Autoři: Merhawi Bahta aff001;  Sirak Tesfamariam aff002;  Dawit G. Weldemariam aff003;  Hermella Yemane aff004;  Eyasu H. Tesfamariam aff005;  Tesfamariam Alem aff001;  Mulugeta Russom aff006
Působiště autorů: Department of Medical Sciences, Pharmacy Unit, Orotta College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Asmara, Eritrea aff001;  Pharmacy, Nakfa Hospital, Nakfa, Eritrea aff002;  Pharmacy, Hazhaz Zonal Referral Hospital, Asmara, Eritrea aff003;  Southern Red Sea Zonal Medical Store, Assab, Eritrea aff004;  Department of Statistics, Biostatistics and Epidemiology Unit, College of Science, Eritrean Institute of Technology, Mai Nefhi, Eritrea aff005;  Eritrean Pharmacovigilance Center, National Medicines and Food Administration, Asmara, Eritrea aff006
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0228013


Dispensing antibiotics without prescription is irrational and can hasten the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. This study aims at determining the extent of this practice and its determinants in all drug retail outlets of Eritrea. A cross-sectional simulated client method was used to conduct the study. Data was collected between July and August 2019, entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 22. Descriptive analysis was performed using mean (standard deviation), median (interquartile range), frequency, percentage, as appropriate, for independent variables. Logistic regression, at bivariate and multivariate levels, along with odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was used to determine the association between the dispensing of antibiotics without prescription and independent variables. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. The extent of dispensing antibiotics without prescription was found to be 87.6% with the most frequently dispensed antibiotics being ciprofloxacin (47.8%) and co-trimoxazole (37.5%). Furthermore, 12.4% of the drug retail outlet attendants did not dispense antibiotics because they preferred a referral to health facilities (52.6%), were following administrative restrictions not to sell antibiotics (42.1%), or did not have the necessary antibiotics (31.6%). Private community pharmacies (AOR = 7.68, 95% CI: 1.67, 35.37; p = 0.009) and private drug shops (AOR = 10.65, 95% CI: 1.96, 57.93; p = 0.006) were more likely to dispense antibiotics compared to the governmental community pharmacies. Dispensing antibiotics without prescription was more likely to occur in the Maekel (central) region (AOR = 3.76, 95% CI: 1.19, 11.92; p = 0.024) compared to the remaining regions combined. In conclusion, the sales of antibiotics without prescription in the drug retail outlets of Eritrea is alarming which requires immediate attention from policymakers.

Klíčová slova:

Antibiotic resistance – Antibiotics – Drug administration – Drug licensing – Drugs – Eritrea – Pharmacists – Shops


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Článek vyšel v časopise


2020 Číslo 1