Chemical analysis of snus products from the United States and northern Europe
Tameka S. Lawler aff001; Stephen B. Stanfill aff001; Hang T. Tran aff001; Grace E. Lee aff002; Patrick X. Chen aff003; J. Brett Kimbrell aff003; Joseph G. Lisko aff001; Carolina Fernandez aff001; Samuel P. Caudill aff001; B. Rey deCastro aff001; Clifford H. Watson aff001
Působiště autorů: Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America aff001; Emory University, Rollins School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America aff002; Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, United States of America aff003
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
Snus is an oral tobacco product that originated in Sweden. Snus products are available as fine-cut loose tobacco or in pre-portioned porous “pouches.” Some snus products undergo tobacco pasteurization during manufacturing, a process that removes or reduces nitrite-forming microbes, resulting in less tobacco-specific nitrosamine content in the product. Some tobacco companies and researchers have suggested that snus is potentially less harmful than traditional tobacco and thus a potential smoking cessation aid or an alternative to continued cigarette consumption. Although snus is available in various countries, limited information exists on snus variants from different manufacturers.
Moisture, pH, nicotine, and tobacco-specific N’-nitrosamines (TSNAs) were quantified in 64 snus products made by 10 manufacturers in the United States and Northern Europe (NE). Reported means, standard errors, and differences are least-square (LS) estimates from bootstrapped mixed effects models, which accounted for correlation among repeated measurements. Minor alkaloids and select flavors were also measured.
Among all product types, moisture (27.4%–59.5%), pH (pH 5.87–9.10), total nicotine (6.81–20.6 mg/g, wet), unprotonated nicotine (0.083–15.7 mg/g), and total TSNAs (390–4,910 ng/g) varied widely. The LS-mean unprotonated nicotine concentration of NE portion (7.72 mg/g, SE = 0.963) and NE loose (5.06 mg/g, SE = 1.26) snus were each significantly higher than US portion snus (1.00 mg/g, SE = 1.56). Concentrations of minor alkaloids varied most among products with the highest total nicotine levels. The LS-mean NNN+NNK were higher in snus sold in the US (1360 ng/g, SE = 207) than in NE (836 ng/g, SE = 132) countries. The most abundant flavor compounds detected were pulegone, eucalyptol, and menthol.
Physical and chemical characteristics of US and NE products labeled as snus can vary considerably and should not be considered “equivalent”. Our findings could inform public health and policy decisions pertaining to snus exposure and potential adverse health effects associated with snus.
Alkaloids – Arithmetic – Europe – Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry – Nicotine – Nicotine addiction – Sweden – United States
1. Swedish Match AB corporate website. Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish Match [cited 2015 Feb 3]. Available from http://www.swedishmatch.com/en/.
2. Foulds J, Ramstrom L, Burke M, Fagerstrom K. Effect of smokeless tobacco (snus) on smoking and public health in Sweden. Tobacco Control. 2003;12(4):349–359. doi: 10.1136/tc.12.4.349 14660766
3. National Cancer Institute and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smokeless Tobacco and Public Health: A Global Perspective. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. NIH Publication No. 14–7983; December 15, 2014.
4. Peeters S, Gilmore AB. Transnational tobacco company interests in smokeless tobacco in Europe: analysis of internal industry documents and contemporary industry materials. PLoS Med. 2013;10(9):e1001506. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001506 Epub 2013 Sep 10. 24058299
5. Rutqvist LE, Curvall M, Hassler T, Ringberger T, Wahlberg I. Swedish snus and the GothiaTek® standard. Harm Reduct J. 2011;8:11. doi: 10.1186/1477-7517-8-11 21575206
6. Fisher MT, Bennett CB, Hayes A, Kargalioglu Y, Knox BL, Xu D, et al. Sources of and technical approaches for the abatement of tobacco specific nitrosamine formation in moist smokeless tobacco products. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50(3–4):942–948. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2011.11.035 22142690
7. Di Giacomo M, Paolino M, Silvestro D, Vigliotta G, Imperi F, Visca P, et al. Microbial community structure and dynamics of dark fire-cured tobacco fermentation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2007;73(3):825–837. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02378-06 17142368
8. Tyx RE, Stanfill SB, Keong LM, Rivera AJ, Satten GA, Watson CH. Characterization of bacterial communities in selected smokeless tobacco products using 16S rDNA analysis. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(1): e0146939. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0146939 26784944
9. Österdahl BG, Slorach SA. Volatile N-nitrosamines in snuff and chewing tobacco on the Swedish market. Food Chem Toxicol. 1983;21(6):759–62. doi: 10.1016/0278-6915(83)90210-7 6686581
10. Österdahl BG, Jansson C, Paccou A. Decreased levels of tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in moist snuff on the Swedish market. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52(16):5085–5088. doi: 10.1021/jf049931a 15291479
11. Richter P, Hodge K, Stanfill S, Zhang L, Watson C. Surveillance of moist snuff: total nicotine, moisture, pH, un-ionized nicotine, and tobacco-specific nitrosamines. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2008;10:1645–1652. doi: 10.1080/14622200802412937 18988077
12. Lawler TS, Stanfill SB, Zhang L, Ashley DL, Watson CH. Chemical characterization of domestic oral tobacco products: total nicotine, pH, unprotonated nicotine and tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2013;57:380–386. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.03.011 23517910
13. Lee PN. Epidemiological evidence relating snus to health–an updated review based on recent publications. Harm Reduction Journal. 2013;10:36. doi: 10.1186/1477-7517-10-36 24314326
14. Lund I, Scheffels J. The relative risk to health from snus and cigarettes: Response to Grimsrud et al.’s commentary on “Perceptions of the relative harmfulness of snus among Norwegian general practitioners and their effect on the tendency to recommend snus in smoking cessation.” Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2013;15(1):304–305. doi: 10.1093/ntr/nts190 22990229
15. Savage L. Experts fear Swedish snus sales in the US could thwart anti-tobacco measures. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2007;99(18):1358–1365. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djm165 17848661
16. Hansson J, Galanti MR, Magnusson C, Hergens M-P. Weight gain and incident obesity among male snus users. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:371. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-371 21605406
17. Wilson KM, Markt SC, Fang F, Nordenvall C, Rider JR, Ye W, et al. Snus use, smoking and survival among prostate cancer patients. Int J Cancer. 2016 Dec 15;139(12):2753–2759. doi: 10.1002/ijc.30411 27582277
18. Stanfill SB, Jia LT, Watson CH, Ashley DL. Rapid and chemically-selective quantification of nicotine in smokeless tobacco products using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatographic Science. 2009;47(10):902–909. doi: 10.1093/chromsci/47.10.902 19930803
19. Lisko JG, Stanfill SB, Duncan BW, Watson CH. Application of GC-MS/MS for the analysis of tobacco alkaloids in cigarette filler and various tobacco species. Analytical Chemistry. 2013;85(6):3380–3384. doi: 10.1021/ac400077e 23394466
20. Lisko JG, Stanfill SB, Watson CH. Quantitation of ten flavor compounds in unburned tobacco products. Analytical Methods. 2014;6:4698–4704. doi: 10.1039/C4AY00271G 26388954
21. US Department of Health and Human Services. Preventing tobacco use among youth and young adults: A report of the surgeon general. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2012.
22. Villanti AC, Richardson A, Vallone DM, Rath JM. Flavored tobacco product use among US young adults. Am J Prev Med. 2013 Apr;44(4):388–91. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2012.11.031 23498105
23. Stanton CA, Villanti AC, Watson C, Delnevo CD. Flavoured tobacco products in the USA: synthesis of recent multidiscipline studies with implications for advancing tobacco regulatory science. Tobacco Control. 2016;25:ii1–ii3. doi: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2016-053486 27856996
24. Villanti AC, Johnson AL, Ambrose BK, Cummings KM, Stanton CA, Rose SW, et al. Flavored tobacco product use in youth and adults: findings from the first wave of the PATH Study (2013–2014). Am J Prev Med. 2017 Aug;53(2):139–151. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.01.026 Epub 2017 Mar 16. 28318902
25. Stepanov I, Jensen J, Hatsukami D, Hecht SS. New and traditional smokeless tobacco: comparison of toxicant and carcinogen levels. Nicotine Tob Res. 2008;10(12):1773–1782. doi: 10.1080/14622200802443544 19023828
26. Hempfling WP, Bokelman GH, Shulleeta M. Method for reduction of tobacco specific nitrosamines. US patent 6,755,200. June 29, 2004.
27. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Smokeless tobacco and some tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. 2007, 89, 1–592 [cited 2015 Dec 7]. Available from: https://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol89/mono89.pdf. 18335640
28. Lunell E, Lunell M. Steady-state nicotine plasma levels following use of four different types of Swedish snus compared with 2-mg Nicorette chewing gum: a crossover study. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005;7(3):397–403. doi: 10.1080/14622200500125468 16085507
29. Fant RV, Henningfield JE, Nelson RA, Pickworth WB. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of moist snuff in humans. Tobacco Control. 1999;8:387–392. doi: 10.1136/tc.8.4.387 10629244
30. Tomar SL, Henningfield JE. Review of the evidence that pH is a determinant of nicotine dosage from oral use of smokeless tobacco. Tobacco Control. 1997;6:219–225. doi: 10.1136/tc.6.3.219 9396107
31. Alpert HR, Koh H, Connolly GN. Free nicotine content and strategic marketing of moist snuff tobacco products in the United States: 2000–2006. Tobacco Control. 2008;17:332–338. doi: 10.1136/tc.2008.025247 18669556
32. Henningfield JE, Fant RV, Tomar SL. Smokeless tobacco: an addicting drug. Adv Dent Res. 1997;11(3):330–5. doi: 10.1177/08959374970110030401 9524433
Článek vyšel v časopise
2020 Číslo 1
- Nový typ fixace umožňuje pravidelnou hygienu končetiny i pobyt ve vodě
- Metamizol jako analgetikum první volby: kdy, pro koho, jak a proč?
- Není statin jako statin aneb praktický přehled rozdílů jednotlivých molekul
- Pregabalin je účinné léčivo s příznivým bezpečnostním profilem pro pacienty s neuropatickou bolestí
- Nedostatek hořčíku se projevuje u stále více lidí