Household environmental tobacco smoke exposure in healthy young children in Hong Kong: Prevalence and risk factors

Autoři: Siyu Dai aff001;  Kate Ching Ching Chan aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article



Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure attributable respiratory illness burden is huge in paediatric population. Understanding the epidemiology of ETS exposure is important to guide health promotion planning. Therefore, we designed this study to determine the prevalence of household ETS exposure in healthy young children under 2 years of age in Hong Kong, and to explore risk factors associated with the exposure. Our secondary goal was to characterise children’s exposure profile to maternal smoking.


A secondary analysis was performed based on the data collected from our 2013–2014 territory-wide cross-sectional pneumococcal carriage surveillance study, with a sample size of 1541. We conducted descriptive analysis for exposure prevalence, univariate and multivariate analysis for identification of risk factors.


1541 children (mean age: 11.2 ± 6.4 months, male: 50.7%) were included in the analysis. The overall prevalence of current household ETS exposure was 31.5%, prevalence of prenatal and postnatal maternal smoking was 3.5% and 1.6% respectively. Independent factors associated with children’s ETS exposure were: never breastfed (AOR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.13–1.93, p = 0.004); prenatal maternal smoking (AOR: 7.46, 95% CI: 2.73–20.39, p< 0.001); overcrowding of household living place (AOR: 3.17, 95% CI: 2.02–4.96, P< 0.001); lower household income (AOR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.04–1.72, p = 0.02). Interestingly, children residing in Kowloon (AOR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.19–2.33, p = 0.003) and New Territories West (AOR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.11–2.15, p = 0.01) were associated with exposure compared with children residing in Hong Kong Island.


Exposure to household ETS is prevalent among Hong Kong young children, particularly in children with maternal unfavourable behaviour and lower socioeconomic status. The identified risk factors should be considered while tobacco control interventions and legislations are planned.

Klíčová slova:

Hong Kong – Children – Islands – Medical risk factors – Smoking habits – Socioeconomic aspects of health – Tobacco control – Smoking legislation


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