Disruption in daily eating-fasting and activity-rest cycles in Indian adolescents attending school

Autoři: Neelu Jain Gupta aff001;  Akansha Khare aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Zoology, Chaudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut, UP, India aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0227002


A lifestyle with erratic eating patterns and habits predisposes youngsters to obesity. Through a two-phase feasibility study among Indian students living in the Delhi area, we longitudinally examined the following: (1) the daily eating-fasting cycles of students (N = 34) in school and college using smartphones as they transition from high school (aged 13–15 years; nIX = 13) to higher secondary school (HSSS; 16–18 years; nXII = 9) to their first year (FY) of college (18–19 years; nFC = 12); and (2) daily activity-rest cycles and light-dark exposure of 31 higher secondary school students (HSSS) using actigraphy. In phase 1, students’ food data were analyzed for temporal details of eating events and observable differences in diet composition, such as an energy-dense diet (fast food (FF)), as confounding factors of circadian health. Overall, the mean eating duration in high school, higher secondary and FY college students ranged from 14.1 to 16.2h. HSSS exhibited the shortest night fasting. Although FY college students exhibited the highest fast food percentage (FF%), a positive correlation between body mass index (BMI) and FF% was observed only among HSSS. Furthermore, the body weight of HSSS was significantly higher, indicating that FF, untimely eating and reduced night fasting were important obesity-associated factors in adolescents. Reduced night fasting duration was also related to shorter sleep in HSSS. Therefore, food data were supplemented with wrist actigraphy, i.e., activity-rest data, in HSSS. Actigraphy externally validated the increased obesogenic consequences of deregulated eating rhythms in HSSS. CamNtech motion watches were used to assess the relationship between disturbed activity cycles of HSSS and other circadian clock-related rhythms, such as sleep. Less than 50% of Indian HSSS slept 6 hours or more per night. Seven of 31 students remained awake throughout the night, during which they had more than 20% of their daily light exposure. Three nonparametric circadian rhythm analysis (NPCRA) variables revealed circadian disruption of activity in HSSS. The present study suggests that inappropriate timing and quality of food and sleep disturbances are important determinants of circadian disruptions in adolescents attending school.

Klíčová slova:

Adolescents – Circadian rhythms – Diet – Eating – Food – Chronobiology – Ingestion – Schools


1. Brand S, Kirov R. Sleep and its importance in adolescence and in common adolescent somatic and psychiatric conditions. Int J Gen Med. 2011;4:425–442. doi: 10.2147/IJGM.S11557 21731894

2. Rodrigues PRM, Luiz RR, Monteiro LS, Ferreira MG, Gonçalves-Silva RMV, Pereira RA. Adolescents’ unhealthy eating habits are associated with meal skipping, Nutrition. 2017, 42: 114–120.e1, ISSN 0899-9007, doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2017.03.011 28596058

3. Borraccino A, Lemma P, Berchialla P, Cappello N, Inchley J, Dalmasso P, et al. Unhealthy food consumption in adolescence: role of sedentary behaviours and modifiers in 11-, 13- and 15-year-old Italians, Eur J Public Health. 2016; 26(4):650–656. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw056 27085192

4. Mattson MP, Allison DB, Fontana L, Harvie M, Longo VD, Malaisse WJ, et al. Meal frequency and timing in health and disease. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 2014;111 (47):16647–16653. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1413965111 25404320

5. Hagenauer MH, Lee TM. The neuroendocrine control of the circadian system: adolescent chronotype. Front. Neuroendocrinol. 2012;33(3):211–229. doi: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2012.04.003 22634481

6. Isakson K, Jarvis P. The adjustment of adolescents during the transition into high school: A short-term longitudinal study. J Youth and Adolesc. 1999;28:(1). https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021616407189,

7. Evans D, Borriello GA, Field AP. A review of the academic and psychological impact of the transition to secondary education. Front Psychol. 2018;9:1482. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01482 30210385

8. Nielsen L, Shaw T, Meilstrup C, Koushede V, Bendtsen P, Rasmussen M, et al. School transition and mental health among adolescents: A comparative study of school systems in Denmark and Australia, Internat. J. Edu. Res. 2017; 83: 65–74.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2017.01.011

9. Status of children in urban India-Baseline study 2016: An official website of National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA), Child Friendly Smart Cities (CFSC) in India. https://cfsc.niua.org/

10. https://www.unicef.org/sowc2011/pdfs/India.pdf

11. Gupta NJ, Kumar V, Panda S. A camera-phone based study reveals erratic eating pattern and disrupted daily eating-fasting cycle among adults in India. PLoS ONE. 2017; 12(3): e0172852. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172852 28264001

12. Bowman SA, Gortmaker SL, Ebbeling CB, Ludwig D. Effects of fast-food consumption on energy intake and diet quality among children in a national household study. Pediatrics. 2004;113:112–118. doi: 10.1542/peds.113.1.112 14702458

13. Gabel K, Hoddy KK, Haggerty N et al. Effects of 8-hour time restricted feeding on body weight and metabolic disease risk factors in obese adults: A pilot study. Nutr Healthy Aging. 2018;4(4):345–353. doi: 10.3233/NHA-170036 29951594

14. Asher G, Sassone-Corsi P. Time for food: The intimate interplay between nutrition metabolism and the circadian clock. Cell. 2015;161: 84–92. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.03.015 25815987

15. Panda S. Circadian physiology of metabolism. Science. 2016;354(6315):1008–1015. doi: 10.1126/science.aah4967 27885007

16. Hatori M, Vollmers C, Zarrinpar A, Ditacchio L, et al. Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet. Cell metab. 2012;15(6):848–60. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2012.04.019 22608008

17. Chaix A, Lin T, Le HD, Chang MW, Panda S. Time-restricted feeding prevents obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice lacking a circadian clock. Cell Metab. 2018;29(2):303–319. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2018.08.004 30174302

18. Cressey D. Fat rats skew research results. Nature. 2010;464:19. doi: 10.1038/464019a 20203576

19. Gill S, Panda S. A smartphone app reveals erratic diurnal eating patterns in humans that can be modulated for health benefits. Cell metab. 2015; 22(5):789–98. Epub 2015/09/29. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2015.09.005 26411343

20. Dashti HS, Scheer FAJL, Saxena R, Garaulet M. Timing of food intake: Identifying contributing factors to design effective interventions. Adv Nutr. 2019;10(4): 606–620. doi: 10.1093/advances/nmy131 31046092

21. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Assessing Interactions among Social, Behavioral, and Genetic Factors in Health; Hernandez LM, Blazer DG, editors. Genes, Behavior, and the Social Environment: Moving Beyond the Nature/Nurture Debate. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2006. 8, Study Design and Analysis for Assessment of Interactions. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK19921/

22. Faizi N et al. Sleep duration and its effect on nutritional status in adolescents of Aligarh, India. South Afr. J. Child Health. 2015;9(1): 18–21.

23. Lushington K, Wilson A, Biggs SN, Kennedy D. Culture, extracurricular activity, sleep habits, and mental health: A comparison of senior higher secondary school asian-australian and caucasian-australian adolescents. Internat J Mental Health. 2015;44(1–2):139–157, doi: 10.1080/00207411.2015.1009788

24. Golem DL, Martin-Biggers JT, Koenings MM, Davis KF, Byrd-Bredbenner C. An integrative review of sleep for nutrition professionals. Adv Nutr. 2014;5(6):742–759. Published 2014 Nov 3. doi: 10.3945/an.114.006809 25398735

25. Budnick LD, Lerman SE, Nicolich MJ. An evaluation of scheduled bright light and darkness on rotating shiftworkers: Trial and limitations. Am J Ind Med. 1995;27:771–782. doi: 10.1002/ajim.4700270602 7645572

26. Wirz-Justice A How to measure circadian rhythms in humans. Medicographia. 2007;29(1): 84–90.

27. Ekblom O, Nyberg G, Bak EE, Ekelund U, Marcus C. Validity and comparability of a wrist-worn accelerometer in children. J Phys Act Health. 2012;9(3):389–93. 22454440

28. Witting W, Kwa IH, Eikelenboom P, Mirmiran M, Swaab DF. Alterations in the circadian rest-activity rhythm in aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Biol Psych. 1990;27: 563–572. doi: 10.1016/0006-3223(90)90523-5

29. Gonçalves BR, Paula AC, Gracilene RT, Tania FC, John A. Nonparametric methods in actigraphy: An update. Sleep Sci. 2014;7. 158. doi: 10.1016/j.slsci.2014.09.013 26483921

30. Huang YL, Liu RY, Wang QS, Van Someren EJ, Xu H, Zhou JN. Age-associated difference in circadian sleep-wake and rest-activity rhythms. Physiol Behav. 2002;76(4–5):597–603. doi: 10.1016/s0031-9384(02)00733-3 12126998

31. Lopes Rda S, Resende NM, Honorio-França AC, França EL. Application of bioinformatics in chronobiology research. Sci World J. 2013:153839. doi: 10.1155/2013/153839 24187519

32. Zehring WA, Wheeler DA, Reddy P, Konopka RJ, Kyriacou CP et al. P-element transformation with period locus DNA restores rhythmicity to mutant arrhythmic Drosophila melanogaster. Cell. 1984;39:369–376. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(84)90015-1 6094014

33. Eckel-Mahan KL, Patel VR, de Mateo S, Orozco-Solis R, Ceglia NJ, Sahar S, et al. Reprogramming of the circadian clock by nutritional challenge. Cell. 2013;155(7):1464–78. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.11.034 24360271

34. Longo VD, Panda S. Fasting, Circadian rhythms, and time-restricted feeding in healthy lifespan. Cell metab. 2016; 23(6):1048–59 doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2016.06.001 27304506

35. Roza AM, Shizgal HM. The Harris Benedict equation reevaluated: resting energy requirements and the body cell mass. The Am. J Clin. Nutr. 1984;40(1):168–82. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/40.1.168 6741850

36. Kinsey AW, Ormsbee MJ. The health impact of nighttime eating: old and new perspectives. Nutrients. 2015;7(4):2648–2662. doi: 10.3390/nu7042648 25859885

37. Takahashi M, Ozaki M, Kang MI, Sasaki H, Fukazawa M et al. Effects of meal timing on postprandial glucose metabolism and blood metabolites in healthy adults. Nutrients. 2018;10(11): 1763. doi: 10.3390/nu10111763 30441841

38. Yoshida J, Eguchi E, Nagaoka K, Ito T, Ogino K. Association of night eating habits with metabolic syndrome and its components: a longitudinal study. BMC Public Health. 2018;18(1):1366. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-6262-3 30537972

39. Alhussain MH, Macdonald IA, Taylor MA. Irregular meal-pattern effects on energy expenditure, metabolism, and appetite regulation: a randomized controlled trial in healthy normal-weight women. The Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2016;104(1): 21–32, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.125401 27305952

40. Kahleova H, Lloren JI, Mashchak A, Hill M, Fraser GE. Meal frequency and timing are associated with changes in body mass index in adventist health study. The J. Nutr. 2017;147(9): 1722–1728. doi: 10.3945/jn.116.244749 28701389

41. Depner CM, Melanson EL, McHill AW, Wright KP. Mistimed food intake and sleep alters 24-hour time-of-day patterns of the human plasma proteome. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 2018;115 (23):E5390–E5399. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1714813115 29784788

42. Owens J. Insufficient Sleep in Adolescents and Young Adults: An Update on Causes and Consequences. Pediatrics. 2014;134. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-1696 25157012

43. Fredriksen K, Rhodes J, Reddy R, Way N. Sleepless in Chicago: tracking the effects of adolescent sleep loss during the middle school years. Child Dev. 2004;75(1):84–95. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00655.x 15015676

44. Moore M, Kirchner HL, Drotar D, Johnson N. Correlates of adolescent sleep time and variability in sleep time: the role of individual and health related characteristics. Sleep Med. 2011;12(3):239–245. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2010.07.020 21316300

45. India Sees Mass Suicides After Thousands Of Students Fail Exams, https://dailycaller.com/2019/04/29/india-suicides-students-fail-exams/

46. Logan RW, McClung CA. Rhythms of life: circadian disruption and brain disorders across the lifespan. Nat. Rev. Neurosc. 2019; 20: 49–65.

Článek vyšel v časopise


2020 Číslo 1
Nejčtenější tento týden