1. World Health Organization. Global Health Risks: Mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risks. World Health Organization; 2009.
2. Ogedegbe G, Plange-Rhule J, Gyamfi J, Chaplin W, Ntim M, Apusiga K, et al. Health insurance coverage with or without a nurse-led task shifting strategy for hypertension control: A pragmatic cluster randomized trial in Ghana. PLoS medicine. 2018 May 1;15(5):e1002561. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002561 29715303
3. Mendis S, Johnston SC, Fan W, Oladapo O, Cameron A, Faramawi MF. Cardiovascular risk management and its impact on hypertension control in primary care in low-resource settings: a cluster-randomized trial. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2010; 88(6): 412–9. doi: 10.2471/BLT.08.062364 20539854
4. Naanyu V, Vedanthan R, Kamano JH, Rotich JK, Lagat KK, Kiptoo P, et al. Barriers influencing linkage to hypertension care in Kenya: qualitative analysis from the LARK hypertension study. Journal of general internal medicine. 2016 Mar 1;31(3):304–14. doi: 10.1007/s11606-015-3566-1 26728782
5. World Health Organization. Global health estimates 2014 summary tables: deaths by cause, age and sex, by WHO region, 2000–2012. World Health Organization; 2014.
6. Ahmad OB, Bochi-Pinto C, Lopez A, Murray C, Lozano R, Imone M. Age standardization of rates: a new WHO standard. Geneva; 2000. GPE Discussion Paper Series, 31.
7. World Health Organization. Global status report on non-communicable diseases. World Health Organization; 2014.
8. van de Vijver S, Akinyi H, Oti S, Olajide A, Agyemang C, Aboderin I, et al. Status report on hypertension in Africa-Consultative review for the 6th Session of the African Union Conference of Ministers of Health on NCD’s. Pan African Medical Journal. 2014;16(1).
9. Lunyera J, Kirenga B, Stanifer JW, Kasozi S, van der Molen T, Katagira W, et al. Geographic differences in the prevalence of hypertension in Uganda: Results of a national epidemiological study. PloS one. 2018 Aug 1;13(8):e0201001. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201001 30067823
10. Guwatudde D, Mutungi G, Wesonga R, Kajjura R, Kasule H, Muwonge J, et al. The epidemiology of hypertension in Uganda: findings from the national non-communicable diseases risk factor survey. PloS one. 2015 Sep 25;10(9):e0138991. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0138991 26406462
11. Musinguzi G, Nuwaha F. Prevalence, awareness and control of hypertension in Uganda. PloS one. 2013 Apr 17;8(4):e62236. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062236 23614041
12. Mohamed SF, Mutua MK, Wamai R, Wekesah F, Haregu T, Juma P, et al. Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension and their determinants: results from a national survey in Kenya. BMC public health. 2018 Nov;18(3):1219.
13. Hendriks ME, Wit FW, Roos MT, Brewster LM, Akande TM, De Beer IH, et al. Hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa: cross-sectional surveys in four rural and urban communities. PloS one. 2012 Mar 12;7(3):e32638. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032638 22427857
14. Ogedegbe G, Gyamfi J, Plange-Rhule J, Surkis A, Rosenthal DM, Airhihenbuwa C, et al. Task shifting interventions for cardiovascular risk reduction in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. BMJ open. 2014 Oct 1;4(10):e005983. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005983 25324324
15. Khetan AK, Purushothaman R, Chami T, Hejjaji V, Mohan SK, Josephson RA, et al. The Effectiveness of community health workers for CVD prevention in LMIC. Global heart. 2017 Sep 1;12(3):233–43. doi: 10.1016/j.gheart.2016.07.001 27993594
16. Jeet G, Thakur JS, Prinja S, Singh M. Community health workers for non-communicable diseases prevention and control in developing countries: Evidence and implications. PloS one. 2017 Jul 13;12(7):e0180640. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180640 28704405
17. Abdel-All M, Putica B, Praveen D, Abimbola S, Joshi R. Effectiveness of community health worker training programmes for cardiovascular disease management in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review. BMJ open. 2017 Nov 1;7(11):e015529. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015529 29101131
18. Haldane V, Legido-Quigley H, Chuah FL, Sigfrid L, Murphy G, Ong SE, et al. Integrating cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and diabetes with HIV services: a systematic review. AIDS care. 2018 Jan 2;30(1):103–15. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2017.1344350 28679283
19. Watt N, Sigfrid L, Legido-Quigley H, Hogarth S, Maimaris W, Otero-Garcia L, et al. Health systems facilitators and barriers to the integration of HIV and chronic disease services: a systematic review. Health policy and planning. 2017 Nov 1;32(suppl_4):iv13–26. doi: 10.1093/heapol/czw149 28666336
20. Njuguna B, Vorkoper S, Patel P, Reid MJ, Vedanthan R, Pfaff C, et al. Models of integration of HIV and noncommunicable disease care in sub-Saharan Africa: lessons learned and evidence gaps. AIDS. 2018 Jul 1;32:S33–42. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001887 29952788
21. Mwagomba BL, Ameh S, Bongomin P, Juma PA, MacKenzie RK, Kyobutungi C, et al. Opportunities and challenges for evidence-informed HIV-noncommunicable disease integrated care policies and programs: lessons from Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland and Kenya. AIDS. 2018 Jul 1;32:S21–32. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001885 29952787
22. Kemp CG, Weiner BJ, Sherr KH, Kupfer LE, Cherutich PK, Wilson D, et al. Implementation science for integration of HIV and non-communicable disease services in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. AIDS. 2018 Jul 1;32:S93–105. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001897 29952795
23. Janssens B, Van Damme W, Raleigh B, Gupta J, Khem S, Soy Ty K, et al. Offering integrated care for HIV/AIDS, diabetes and hypertension within chronic disease clinics in Cambodia. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007;85:880–5. doi: 10.2471/BLT.06.036574 18038079
24. Gounder CR and Chaisson RE. A diagonal approach to building primary healthcare systems in resource-limited settings: Women-centred integration of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, MCH and NCD initiatives. Tropical Medicine & International Health 2012; 17(12): 1426–1431.
25. Pastakia SD, Manyara SM, Vedanthan R, Kamano JH, Menya D, Andama B, et al. Impact of bridging income generation with group integrated care (BIGPIC) on hypertension and diabetes in rural western Kenya. Journal of general internal medicine. 2017 May 1;32(5):540–8. doi: 10.1007/s11606-016-3918-5 27921256
26. O’Neil DS, Lam WC, Nyirangirimana P, Burton WB, Baganizi M, Musominali S, et al. Evaluation of care access and hypertension control in a community health worker driven non-communicable disease programme in rural Uganda: the chronic disease in the community project. Health policy and planning. 2016 Mar 8;31(7):878–83.
27. Sustainable East Africa Research in Community Health (SEARCH) Study. Accessed 4 October 2017 from https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01864603.
28. Chamie G, Kwarisiima D, Clark TD, Kabami J, Jain V, Geng E, et al. Leveraging rapid community-based HIV testing campaigns for non-communicable diseases in rural Uganda. PloS one. 2012 Aug 20;7(8):e43400. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043400 22916256
29. Kotwani P, Kwarisiima D, Clark TD, Kabami J, Geng EH, Jain V, et al. Epidemiology and awareness of hypertension in a rural Ugandan community: a cross-sectional study. BMC public health. 2013 Dec;13(1):1151.
30. Kotwani P, Balzer L, Kwarisiima D, Clark TD, Kabami J, Byonanebye D, et al. Evaluating linkage to care for hypertension after community-based screening in rural Uganda. Tropical Medicine & International Health. 2014 Apr;19(4):459–68.
31. Kwarisiima D, Balzer L, Heller D, Kotwani P, Chamie G, Clark T, et al. Population-based assessment of hypertension epidemiology and risk factors among HIV-positive and general populations in rural Uganda. PloS one. 2016 May 27;11(5):e0156309. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156309 27232186
32. Chamie G, Clark TD, Kabami J, Kadede K, Ssemmondo E, Steinfeld R, et al. A hybrid mobile approach for population-wide HIV testing in rural east Africa: an observational study. The Lancet HIV. 2016 Mar 31;3(3):e111–9. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(15)00251-9 26939734
33. Kwarisiima D, Atukunda M, Owaraganise A, Chamie G, Clark T, Kabami J, et al. Hypertension control in integrated HIV and chronic disease clinics in Uganda in the SEARCH study. BMC public health. 2019 Dec;19(1):511. doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-6838-6 31060545
34. Kamwesiga J. Uganda Health Care System. Kampala, Uganda: Makerere University, May. 2011.
35. Muga R, Kizito P, Mbayah M, Gakuruh T. Overview of the health system in Kenya. Kenya service provision assessment (KSPA 2004) survey URL: https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/spa8/02chapter2.pdf [accessed 2018-03-20][WebCite Cache ID 6y3kFHBkt]. 2005
36. Uganda Ministry of Health. “Uganda Clinical Guidelines 2012—National Guidelines for Management of Common Conditions.” Accessed 30 August 2019 from http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/en/m/abstract/Js21741en/.
37. Kenya Ministry of Health. “Kenya Clinical Guidelines 2009—National Guidelines for Management of Common Conditions.” Accessed 30 August 2019 from http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s21000en/s21000en.pdf.
38. Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, Casey DE, Collins KJ, Himmelfarb CD, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2018 May 7;71(19):e127–248. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.11.006 29146535
39. James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, Cushman WC, Dennison-Himmelfarb C, Handler J, et al. 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). Jama. 2014 Feb 5;311(5):507–20. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.284427 24352797
40. Uganda Ministry of Health. “Uganda Clinical Guidelines 2016—National Guidelines for Management of Common Conditions.” Accessed 30 August 2019 from http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/en/m/abstract/Js23532en/
41. Chesney MA, Ickovics JR, Chambers DB, Gifford AL, Neidig J, Zwickl B, et al. Self-reported adherence to antiretroviral medications among participants in HIV clinical trials: the AACTG adherence instruments. AIDS care. 2000 Jun 1;12(3):255–66. doi: 10.1080/09540120050042891 10928201
42. Berry KM, Parker WA, Mchiza ZJ, Sewpaul R, Labadarios D, Rosen S, et al. Quantifying unmet need for hypertension care in South Africa through a care cascade: evidence from the SANHANES, 2011–2012. BMJ global health. 2017 Aug 1;2(3):e000348. doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000348 29082013
43. Ma J, Stafford RS. Screening, treatment, and control of hypertension in US private physician offices, 2003–2004. Hypertension 2008; 51(5): 1275–81. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.107.107086 18347229
44. StataCorp LP. STATA 13.1 SE. 2015.
45. Daskalopoulou SS, Rabi DM, Zarnke KB, Dasgupta K, Nerenberg K, Cloutier L, et al. The 2015 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for blood pressure measurement, diagnosis, assessment of risk, prevention, and treatment of hypertension. Canadian Journal of Cardiology. 2015 May 1;31(5):549–68. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2015.02.016 25936483
46. Healthy Heart Africa: Strengthening Healthcare Capabilities. AstraZeneca; 2014. Accessed 4 October 2017 from https://www.astrazeneca.com/sustainability/access-to-healthcare/healthy-heart-africa.html.
47. Koehler PJ. ASAPP Combats Global Epidemic of Stroke. World Neurology; 2015. Accessed 4 October 2017 from http://worldneurologyonline.com/article/asapp-combats-global-epidemic-of-stroke/.
48. The Community-based Hypertension Improvement Project (ComHIP). Novartis Foundation; 2016. Accessed 4 October 2017 from http://www.novartisfoundation.org/_file/607/comhip-factsheet.pdf.
49. Gu Q, Burt VL, Dillon CF, Yoon S. Trends in Antihypertensive Medication Use and Blood Pressure Control Among United States Adults With Hypertension Clinical Perspective. Circulation 2012; 126(17): 2105–14.
50. Levi J, Raymond A, Pozniak A, Vernazza P, Kohler P, Hill A. Can the UNAIDS 90-90-90 target be achieved? A systematic analysis of national HIV treatment cascades. BMJ Global Health. 2016 Sep 1;1(2):e000010. doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2015-000010 28588933
51. Hill A, Pozniak A. HIV treatment cascades: how can all countries reach the UNAIDS 90–90–90 target? AIDS. 2015 Nov 28;29(18):2523–5. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000864 26558548
52. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. 90-90-90: an ambitious treatment target to help end the AIDS epidemic. UNAIDS; 2014.