Food insecurity and dietary diversity among lactating mothers in the urban municipality in the mountains of Nepal

Autoři: Devendra Raj Singh aff001;  Saruna Ghimire aff003;  Satya Raj Upadhayay aff004;  Sunita Singh aff005;  Umesh Ghimire aff006
Působiště autorů: Department of Public Health, Asian College for Advance Studies, Purbanchal University, Satdobato, Lalitpur, Nepal aff001;  Southeast Asia Development Actions Network (SADAN), Lalitpur, Nepal aff002;  Department of Sociology and Gerontology and Scripps Gerontology Center, Miami University, Oxford, OH, United States of America aff003;  Department of Public Health, National Open College, Pokhara University, Sanepa, Lalitpur, Nepal aff004;  Central Department of Home Science, Padma Kanya Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal aff005;  New ERA, Kathmandu, Nepal aff006
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227873



Adequate nutrition is essential during the lactation period for better maternal and child health outcomes. Although food insecurity and dietary monotony (defined as less diverse diet), two important determinants of undernutrition, are endemic in the rural mountains of Nepal, insufficiently examined and assessed for risk factors in mothers during lactation, a life stage of high nutritional demand. This study aimed to assess the status and factors associated with food insecurity and dietary diversity among lactating mothers residing in the mountains of Nepal.


A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban municipality in the mountainous Bajhang District of far-western Nepal. The sampling frame and strategy led to 417 randomly selected lactating mothers. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and the tool “Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women” developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization were used to measure food insecurity and dietary diversity, respectively. Additional information on socio-demographics and risk factors were collected. Multivariable logistics regression assessed correlates of study outcomes.


Overall, 54% of the households were food insecure, and over half (53%) of the mothers had low dietary diversity. Food insecurity status (mild food insecurity AOR = 10.12, 95% CI = 4.21–24.34; moderate food insecurity AOR = 8.17, 95% CI = 3.24–20.59, and severe food insecurity AOR = 10.56, 95% CI = 3.92–28.43) were associated with higher odds of dietary monotony. Likewise, participants with lower dietary diversity were 8.5 times more likely to be food insecure than those with higher dietary diversity (AOR = 8.48, 95% CI = 3.76–19.14). The monthly income of the family was positively associated with food insecurity. Participants’ (AOR = 3.92 95%CI = 1.76–8.71) or spouses’ (AOR = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.07–7.85) unemployment was associated with higher odds of being food insecure. Likewise, owning a cultivable land (AOR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.28–0.84) and participant’s unemployment status (AOR = 5.92, 95% CI = 3.02–11.63), were significantly associated with increased odds of dietary monotony.


The observed food insecurity and poor dietary diversity among lactating mothers, the correlates associated with these outcomes, may help local stakeholders to identify local health needs and subgroups for targeted interventions. Socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers should be specifically targeted for relevant programs and policies.

Klíčová slova:

Antenatal care – Diet – Food – Human families – Mothers – Nepal – Nutrition – Pregnancy


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