City to city learning and knowledge exchange for climate resilience in southern Africa

Autoři: Mzime R. Ndebele-Murisa aff001;  Chipo P. Mubaya aff002;  Lulu Pretorius aff003;  Rudo Mamombe aff001;  Kornelia Iipinge aff004;  Wilma Nchito aff005;  John K. Mfune aff004;  Gilbert Siame aff005;  Brenda Mwalukanga aff005
Působiště autorů: Department of Freshwater and Fishery Science, Chinhoyi University of Technology, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe aff001;  International Collaborations Office, Chinhoyi University of Technology, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe aff002;  School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa aff003;  Department of Biological Sciences, University of Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia aff004;  Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article


Southern African cities face several challenges including management of rapid urbanization, rising populations, expanding informal settlements; adequate water and other service provision, and a host of governance challenges. Climate change and variability add a compounding effect to this complex, multi stressor context. Addressing the complexity requires an understanding of urban ecosystems functioning and interactions amongst the built and natural environment (climate) and human systems. In this paper we argue that learning is essential for cities to be resilient to current and future challenges. We profile the Future Resilience for African CiTies And Lands (FRACTAL) project which contributed towards climate resilient development by providing relevant climate information for decision-making at the city regional scale in southern Africa. Following FRACTAL’s city-to-city learning approach of sharing good practices, knowledge and experiences framed around transdisciplinary research, the study cities of Harare, Lusaka, Windhoek and Durban conducted city learning exchange visits between 2017 and 2018. We used a mixed methods approach to collect and analyze historical climate and hydrological data and current socio-economic and development data among the cities. A qualitative, in-depth, case study comparative analysis was used to identify similarities and differences as well as lessons drawn from the learning process during the city exchanges and these were complimented by desktop studies. Results showed water scarcity, large informal settlements, reliance on external water and energy sources, inadequate protection of ecologically sensitive resources and service provision as some of the common complications in the cities. Several lessons and transferable practices learnt from the cities included effective water conservation and waste management and the use of public-private partnerships in Windhoek, community engagements in Durban and Lusaka while lessons on decisive leadership in dealing with informal settlements emanated from Harare’s limited informal settlements. Lastly, Durban’s Adaptation Charter and integrated climate planning provided lessons for biodiversity protection and mainstreaming climate change at city governance level. While we recognize that cities are context-specific we consider these good practices as being broadly transferable to other southern African cities. We conclude that social, experiential and structured learning can be an innovative way of multi-stakeholder engagement and a useful approach to increase city resilience planning across southern Africa and cities that face similar developmental challenges.

Klíčová slova:

Climate change – Flooding – Fractals – Human learning – Learning – Surface water – Urban ecosystems – Water resources


1. Broto VC, Boyd E, Ensor J. Participatory urban planning for climate change adaptation in coastal cities: lessons from a pilot experience in Maputo. Mozambique Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. 2015;13:11–18.

2. Childers D, Cadenasso M, Grove J, Marshall V, Mcgrath B, Pickett S. An ecology for cities: A transformational nexus of design and ecology to advance climate change resilience and urban sustainability. Sustainability. 2015;7(4):3774–3791.

3. Muchadenyika D. Slum upgrading and inclusive municipal governance in Harare, Zimbabwe: New perspectives for the urban poor. Habitat International. 2015;48:1–10.

4. Phiri A. Risks of domestic underground water sources in informal settlements in Kabwe- Zambia. Environment & Pollution. 2016;5:1–14.

5. Muchadenyika D, Williams JJ. Politics and the practice of planning: The case of Zimbabwean cities. Cities. 2017;63:33–40.

6. Teye J.K. Environmental change and migration in Africa. In, Anarfi JK, Kwasi J, Sulemana A, Anamzoya A, Adiku G. Migration in a Globalizing World: Perspectives from Ghana. 2018. Pp 97–115.

7. Ziervogel G. Building transformative capacity for adaptation planning and implementation that works for the urban poor: Insights from South. Africa AMBIO A Journal of the Human Environment. 2019;48(5):494–506.

8. Muller M. Adapting to climate change: water management for urban resilience. Environment and Urbanization. 2007;19(1):99–113.

9. Sorensen P. The chronic water shortage in Cape Town and survival strategies. International Journal of Environmental Studies. 2017;74(4):515–527.

10. Fauchereau N, Trzaska S, Rouault M, Richard Y. Rainfall Variability and Changes in Southern Africa during the 20th Century in the Global Warming Context. Natural Hazards; 2003;29(3):139–154.

11. Pinto I, Lennard C, Tadross M. Evaluation and projections of extreme precipitation over southern Africa from two CORDEX models. Climatic Change. 2016;135:655–668.

12. Maure GA, Pinto I, Ndebele-Murisa MR, Muthige M, Lennard C, Nikulin G, et al. The southern African climate under 1.5 and 2C of global warming as simulated by CORDEX models. Environmental Research Letters. 2018.

13. Corfee-Morlot J, Kamal-Chaoui L, Donovan MG, Cochran I, Robert A, Teasdale PJ. Cities, climate change and multilevel governance; 2009. OECD Environmental Working Papers N° 14, 2009, OECD publishing, OECD.

14. Ürge-Vorsatz D, Rosenzweig C, Dawson RJ, Rodriguez RS, Bai X, Barau AS, et al. Locking in positive climate responses in cities. Nature Climate Change. 2018;8(3):174–177.

15. Campbell L. Stepping back: understanding cites and their systems. ALNAP Working Paper. 2016.

16. Bai X. Future Earth Urban Knowledge Action Network; 2018.

17. Campbell L. Stepping back: Understanding cities and their systems ALNAP; 2016.

18. Bigio A. Cities and climate change. In: Kreimer A, Arnold M, Carlin A, editors. Building Safer Cities: The Future of Disaster Risk. No3. Disaster Risk management Series. Washington DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank; 2003. p. 91–100.

19. Roberts R, Boon R, Diederichs N, et al. Exploring ecosystem-based adaptation in Durban, South Africa: “learning-by-doing” at the local government coal face. Environment and Urbanization. 2012;24(1):167–195.

20. Pelling M, O’Brien K, Matyas D. Adaptation and transformation. Climatic Change 2014;133:113–127.

21. Ziervogel G, Cowen A, Ziniades J. Moving from adaptive to transformative capacity: Building foundations for inclusive, thriving, and regenerative urban settlements. Sustainability (Switzerland). 2016;8(9).

22. Campbell T. Beyond Smart cities: How cities network, learn, and innovate. New York: Earthscan; 2012.

23. Moodley S. Defining city-to-city learning in southern Africa: Exploring practitioner sensitivities in the knowledge transfer process. Habitat International. 2019;85:34–40.

24. Araos M, Berrang-Ford L, Ford JD, Austin SE, Biesbroek R, Lesnikowski A. Climate change adaptation planning in large cities: A systematic global assessment. Environmental Science & Policy. 2016;66:375–382.

25. Carmin J, Anguelovski I, Roberts D. Urban climate adaptation in the global south: planning in an emerging policy domain. Journal of Planning Education and Research. 2012;32(1):18–32.

26. Roberts D, O’Donoghue S. Urban environmental challenges and climate change action in Durban, South Africa. Environment and Urbanization, 2013;25(2):299–319.

27. Simon D, Leck H. Understanding climate adaptation and transformation challenges in African cities. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. 2015;13:109–116.

28. Jasanoff S. The fifth branch: Science advisers as policymakers. Harvard University Press; 2009.

29. Scott D, Jack C. Telling stories: A multi-disciplinary co-production device? 2017.

30. Shepherd TG, Boyd E, Calel RA. Storylines: An alternative approach to representing uncertainty in physical aspects of climate change. Climatic change. 2018; 151:555–571. doi: 10.1007/s10584-018-2317-9 30880852

31. Mauser W, Klepper G, Rice M, Schmalzbauer BS, Hackmann H, Leemans R, et al. Transdisciplinary global change research: the co-creation of knowledge for sustainability. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. 2013;5(3-):420431.

32. Arrighi A, Koelle B, Besa MC, Spires M, Kavonic J, Scott D, et al. Dialogue for decision-making: unpacking the City Learning Lab approach; 2016. Working Paper Series No. 7. Red Cross/Red Crescent Climate Centre.

33. Cundill G, Harvey B, Tebboth M, Cochrane L, Currie-Alder B, Vincent K, et al. Large-scale transdisciplinary collaboration for adaptation research: Challenges and insights. Global Challenges. 2018;3(4):1700132. 31565370

34. Lang DJ, Wiek A, Bergmann M, Stauffacher M, Martens P, Moll P, et al. Transdisciplinary research in sustainability science: Practice, principles, and challenges. Sustainability Science. 2012;7(1):25–43.

35. Brandt P, Ernst A, Gralla F, Luederitz C, Lang DJ, Newig J, et al. A review of transdisciplinary research in sustainability science. Ecological Economics. 2013;92:1–15.

36. von Wehrden H, Guimarães MH, Bina O, Varanda M, Lang DJ, John B, et al. Interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research: finding the common ground of multi-faceted concepts. Sustainability Science. 2019;14(3):875–888.

37. Thompson MA, Owen S, Lindsay JM, Leonard GS, Cronin SJ. Scientist and stakeholder perspectives of transdisciplinary research: Early attitudes, expectations, and tensions. Environmental Science and Policy. 2017;74:30–39.

38. Klenk N, Fiume A, Meehan K, Gibbes C. Local knowledge in climate adaptation research: Moving knowledge frameworks from extraction to co-production. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change. 2017;8(5):475–475.

39. Polk M. Transdisciplinary co-production: Designing and testing a transdisciplinary research framework for societal problem solving. Futures. 2015;65:110–122.

40. Howarth C. Telling stories on climate change and low carbon futures: Framing narratives around the UKs fifth Carbon Budget. Journal of Energy Research and Social Science. 2017;31:295–302.

41. Donker F, Howarth C, Ebhuoma E, Daly M, Vaughan C, Pretorius L, et al. Climate services and communication for development: The role of early career researchers in advancing the debate. Environmental Communication. 2019;13:561–566.

42. Taylor A, Scott D, Steynor A, Mcclure A. Transdisciplinarity, Co-Production and Co-Exploration: Integrating Knowledge across Science, Policy and Practice in FRACTAL; FRACTAL Working Paper; 2016.

43. Snyder WM, Wenger E. Our world as a learning system: a communities of practice approach. In: Blackmore C, editor. Social Learning Systems and Communities of Practice. Dordrecht: Springer; 2010.

44. Lee T, Meene SVD. Who teaches and who learns? Policy learning through the C40 cities climate network. Policy Sciences. 2012;45(3):199–220.

45. Krause RM. An assessment of the impact that participation in local climate networks has on cities implementation of climate, energy, and transportation policies. Review of Policy Research. 2012;29(5):585–604.

46. Zeppel H. The ICLEI Cities for Climate Protection programme: local government networks in urban climate governance. In: Climate Change and Global Policy Regimes. Palgrave Macmillan; 2013. p. 217–231.

47. Wenger E. Communities of practice and social learning systems: the career of a concept. Social learning systems and communities of practice; 2010.

48. Tschakert P, Dietrich KA. Anticipatory learning for climate change adaptation and resilience. Ecology and society. 2010;15(2):11–11.

49. Jones L, Harvey B, Cochrane L. Designing the next generation of climate adaptation research for development. Regional Environmental Change. 2018;18:1553–1561.

50. Steyaert P, Jiggins J. Governance of complex environmental situations through social learning: a synthesis of SLIMs lessons for research, policy and practice. Environmental Science & Policy. 2007;10(6):575–586.

51. Ziervogel G, Taylor A. Feeling stressed: integrating climate adaptation with other priorities in South Africa. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development; 2008.

52. Bandura A. Social Learning Theory. New York, USA: General Learning Press; 1971.

53. Rendell L, Fogarty L, Hoppitt WJE, Morgan TJH, Webster MM, Laland KN. Cognitive culture: theoretical and empirical insights into social learning strategies. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 2011;15:68–76. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2010.12.002 21215677

54. Weissberg RP, Cascarino J. Academic learning and social-emotional learning national priority. Phi Delta Kappan. 2013;95(2):8–13.

55. Miller TR, Wiek A, Sarewitz D, Robinson J, Olsson L, Kriebel D, et al. The future of sustainability science: a solutions-oriented research agenda. Sustainability Science. 2014;9(2):239–246.

56. FRACTAL Praxis: Developing concepts through practice. Presentation at FRACTAL write shop, Cape Town; 2018.

57. Steynor A, Padgham J, Jack C, Hewitson B, Lennard C. Co-exploratory climate risk workshops: Experiences from urban Africa. Climate Risk Management. 2016;13:95–102.

58. Stern E, Stame E, Mayne J, Forss K, Davies, R and Befani B. Broadening the range of designs and methods for impact evaluations. Report of a study commissioned by the Department for International Development;. 2012.

59. Goodrick D. Comparative case studies: Methodological briefs- Impact Evaluation No. 9; 2014.

60. Nhapi I. Inventory of water management practices in Harare. Zimbabwe Water and Environment Journal. 2008;22(1):54–63.

61. Weber B, Mendelsohn J. Informal settlements in Namibia: their nature and growth Exploring ways to make Namibian urban development more socially just and inclusive. NEC, GIZ. John Meinert Printing. 2017;(1).

62. Habitat UN. Zambia: Lusaka Urban Profile. Nairobi: UNON, Publishing Services Section; 2007.

63. Government of the Republic of Zambia (GRZ), Ministry of Local Government M, Lusaka City Council (LCC). Assessment of Flood Risk for Mazyopa Settlement arising from Improvements for Bombay and Lumumba drain. Lusaka Water Supply and Sanitation and Drainage (LWSSD) Project; 2013.

64. Nchito WS, Siame G, Nyanga P, Mushili B, Mwalukanga B. Understanding Interactions Between Urban Floods, Municipal Solid Waste and Urban Planning in The Lusaka City-Region. Final Project Report for 2016 START Grants for Global Change; 2018.

65. Dian S. What Cape Town can learn from Windhoek on surviving drought; 2017.

66. Sithole A, Goredema B. Building in Wetlands to Meet the Housing Demand and Urban Growth in Harare. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sci. 2013.Special Issue:193–201.

67. Mapimhidze R. Urban wetlands under Siege; 2014.

68. Tendaupenyu I. Role of wetlands in the self-purification of streams using the Mukuvisi River (Harare, Zimbabwe) as a case study; 2002. MSc thesis, University of Zimbabwe.

69. Williams DS, Costa M, Celliers L, Sutherland C. Informal Settlements and Flooding: Identifying Strengths and Weaknesses in Local Governance for Water Management; 2018.

70. World Economic Forum (2019). South Africa Energy Transition Index 2019 Edition.

71. Lafforgue M, Lenouvel V. Closing the urban water loop: lessons from Singapore and Windhoek. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology. 2015;1(5):622–631.

72. Haarhoff J, Merwe BVD. Twenty-five years of wastewater reclamation in Windhoek. Namibia Water Science and Technology. 1996;33:25–35.

73. ARUP, Rockefeller Foundation. City resilience framework; 2015. Arup, London.

74. Kayaga S, Kadimba-Mwanamwambwa C. Bridging Zambia’s water service gap: NGO/community partnerships. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Water Management. 2006; p. 3–3.

75. Mather A, Roberts D, Tooley G. Adaptation in Practise: Durban, South Africa. in K Otto-Zimmermann (editor), Resilient Cities: Cities and Adaptation to Climate Change. Proceedings of the Global Forum 2010, Local Sustainability Series Vol 1, pages 543−563.

76. Ndebele-Murisa MR, Mubaya CP. Decision making and climate resilience in the water sector of Harare. Policy Brief. 2019.

77. eThekwini Municipality. Durban Climate Change Strategy; 2014.

78. Ndunguru MG, Hoko Z. Assessment of water loss in Harare. Zimbabwe Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. 2016;6(4):519–533.

79. Chirisa I, Bandauko E, Matamanda A, Mandisvika G. Decentralized domestic wastewater systems in developing countries: the case study of Harare (Zimbabwe).

80. Lykke AM, Barfod AS, Svendsen GT, Greve M, Svenning JC. Climate change mitigation by carbon stocking: The case of semi-arid West Africa. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2009;8(1).

81. Broto VC, Bulkeley H. A survey of urban climate change experiments in 100 cities. Global Environmental Change. 2013;23(1):92–102. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.07.005 23805029

82. Jabareen Y. Planning the resilient city: Concepts and strategies for coping with climate change and environmental risk. Cities. 2013;31:220–229.

83. Mubaya CP, Mutopo P, Ndebele-Murisa MR. Local governance, climate risk and everyday vulnerability in Dar es Salaam. Untamed Urbanisms; 2015. Routledge. 134–149. Routledge. Series: Advances in Regional Economics, Science and Policy. Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon and New York.

84. Mukheibir P. Possible climate change impacts on large hydroelectricity schemes in Southern Africa. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa. 2007;18(1):4–9.

Článek vyšel v časopise


2020 Číslo 1
Nejčtenější tento týden