Infective endocarditis post-transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), microbiological profile and clinical outcomes: A systematic review


Autoři: Adnan Khan aff001;  Aqsa Aslam aff001;  Khawar Naeem Satti aff002;  Sana Ashiq aff001
Působiště autorů: Sharif Medical and Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan aff001;  Senior Registrar Rawalpindi Institute of Cardiology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225077

Souhrn

Background

The data on infective endocarditis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is scarce and limited to case reports and case series in the literature. It is the need of the hour to analyze the available data on post-TAVI infective endocarditis from the available literature. The objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate the incidence of infective endocarditis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation, its microbiological profile and clinical outcomes. It will help us to improve the antibiotic prophylaxis strategies and treatment options for infective endocarditis in the context of TAVI.

Methods

EMBASE, Medline and the CENTRAL trials registry of the Cochrane Collaboration were searched for articles on infective endocarditis in post-TAVI patients till October 2018. Eleven articles were included in the systematic review. The outcomes assessed werethe incidence of infective endocarditis, its microbiological profile andclinical outcomes including major adverse cardiac event (MACE), net adverse clinical event (NACE), surgical intervention and valve-in-valve procedure.

Results

The incidence of infective endocarditis varied from 0%-14.3% in the included studies, the mean was3.25%. The average duration of follow-up was 474 days (1.3 years). Enterococci were the most common causative organism isolated from 25.9% of cases followed by Staphylococcus aureus (16.1%) and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species (14.7%). The mean in-hospital mortality and mortality at follow-up was 29.5% and 29.9%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of heart failure, stroke and major bleeding were 37.1%, 5.3% and 11.3%,respectively. Only a single study by Martinez-Selles et al. reported arrhythmias in 20% cases. The septic shock occurred in 10% and 27.7% post-TAVI infective endocarditis patients according to 2 studies. The surgical intervention and valve-in-valve procedure were reported in 11.4% and 6.4% cases, respectively.

Conclusion

The incidence of post-TAVI infective endocarditis is low being 3.25% but it is associated with high mortality and complications. The most common complication is heart failure with a cumulative incidence of 37.1%. Enterococciare the most common causative organism isolated from 25.9% of cases followed by Staphylococcus aureus in 16.1% of cases. Appropriate measures should be taken to prevent infective endocarditis in post-TAVI patients including adequate antibiotics prophylaxis directed specifically against these organisms.

Study registration

PROSPERO registration number CRD42018115943.

Klíčová slova:

Antibiotics – Endocarditis – Enterococcus – Enterococcus infections – Staphylococcal infection – Streptococcal infections – Surgical and invasive medical procedures – Systematic reviews


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