Multidisciplinary investigation of two Egyptian child mummies curated at the University of Tartu Art Museum, Estonia (Late/Graeco-Roman Periods)


Autoři: Ester Oras aff001;  Jaanika Anderson aff003;  Mari Tõrv aff002;  Signe Vahur aff001;  Riina Rammo aff002;  Sünne Remmer aff004;  Maarja Mölder aff004;  Martin Malve aff002;  Lehti Saag aff005;  Ragnar Saage aff002;  Anu Teearu-Ojakäär aff001;  Pilleriin Peets aff001;  Kristiina Tambets aff005;  Mait Metspalu aff005;  David C. Lees aff007;  Maxwell V. L. Barclay aff007;  Martin J. R. Hall aff007;  Salima Ikram aff008;  Dario Piombino-Mascali aff010
Působiště autorů: Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia aff001;  Institute of History and Archaeology, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia aff002;  University of Tartu Museum, Tartu, Estonia aff003;  Estonian Forensic Science Institute, Tallinn, Estonia aff004;  Institute of Genomics, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia aff005;  Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia aff006;  The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom aff007;  Department of Sociology, Egyptology and Anthropology, American University in Cairo, New Cairo, Egypt aff008;  Department of Ancient Studies, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa aff009;  Department of Anatomy, Histology and Anthropology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania aff010
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227446

Souhrn

Two ancient Egyptian child mummies at the University of Tartu Art Museum (Estonia) were, according to museum records, brought to Estonia by the young Baltic-German scholar Otto Friedrich von Richter, who had travelled in Egypt during the early 19th century. Although some studies of the mummies were conducted, a thorough investigation has never been made. Thus, an interdisciplinary team of experts studied the remains using the most recent analytical methods in order to provide an exhaustive analysis of the remains. The bodies were submitted for osteological and archaeothanatological study, radiological investigation, AMS radiocarbon dating, chemical and textile analyses, 3D modelling, entomological as well as aDNA investigation. Here we synthesize the results of one of the most extensive multidisciplinary analyses of ancient Egyptian child mummies, adding significantly to our knowledge of such examples of ancient funerary practices.

Klíčová slova:

Fats – Feet – Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry – Head – Oils – Skull – Teeth – Toes


Zdroje

1. Lens W, editor. Deutschbaltisches Biographisches Lexicon 1710–1960. Wedemark: Verlag Harro von Hirschheydt; 1998.

2. Stadnikov S. Otto Friedrich von Richters Forschungsreise in Unternubien im Jahre 1815. Auszüge aus dem Tagebuch. In: Ahn G, editor. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag; 2003. pp. 125–161.

3. Stadnikov S. Otto Friedrich von Richter ja Egiptus. In: Stadnikov S, editor. Tallinn: Kodutrükk; 1998. pp. 275–300.

4. Jürjo I, Stadnikov S, editors. Briefe aus dem Morgenland: Otto Friedrich von Richters Forschungsreise in den Jahren 1814–1816 (Hamburger Beiträge zur Geschichte des östlichen Europa, Band 20). Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovač; 2013.

5. Morgenstern K, editor. Dörptische Beiträge für Freunde der Philosophie, Literatur und Kunst. Volume 3. Dorpat: Leipzig; 1821.

6. Hindikainen A, editor. Dorpat–Yuryev–Tartu and Voronež: The Fate of the University Collection: catalogue. I. = Dorpat–Jurjev–Tartu ja Voronež: ülikooli kollektsiooni saatus: kataloog. I = Дерпт–Юрьев–Тарту и Воронеж: история университетской коллекции: каталог. I. Ilmamaa, Tartu; 2006.

7. Cooke N, Daubney V, editors. Every traveller needs a compass: travel and collecting in Egypt and the Near East. Oxford and Philadelphia: ASTENE and Oxbow Books; 2015.

8. Onderka P. History of collecting Egyptian mummies in the Czech lands. In: Onderka P, Jungová G, Bučil J, Oktábcová L, Pečený J, Cvrček J, Schierová Z, Tomsová J. Atlas of Egyptian mummies in the Czech collections, I: complete adult human mummies. Prague: National Museum; 2016. pp 15–20.

9. Hudáková L, Hudec J, editors. Egypt and Austria IX: Perception of the Orient in Central Europe (1800–1918). Proceedings of the symposium held at Betliar, Slovakia (October 21st to 24th, 2013). Kraków: Aigyptos Foundation; 2016.

10. Owens LS, De Trafford A, editors. The management of Egypt’s cultural heritage, London: ECHO and Golden House; 2009.

11. Verzeichniss des Museum der Kunst der Kaiserl. Universität zu Dorpat angefertigt von dessen ersten Sämler und Director Karl Morgenstern. Dritter Band. Gemälde und Handzeichnungen, Daktyliothek; Arbeiten in Mosaik, Elfenbeine & in Marmor und Alabaster; Gypsabgüsse; Ägyptische, Griechische und andere Alterthümer. Dorpat: University of Tartu Art Museum; 1808.

12. Ikram S, Dodson A. The mummy in ancient Egypt. Equipping the dead for eternity. Cairo: AUC Press; 1998.

13. Andrews C. 1994. Amulets of Ancient Egypt. London: British Museum; 1994.

14. Dieleman J. The Materiality of Textual Amulets in Ancient Egypt. In: Boschung D, Bremmer JN, editors. The Materiality of Magic. Morphomata 20. Munich: Wilhelm Fink; 2015. pp. 23–58.

15. Bronk Ramsey C. Methods for summarising radiocarbon datasets. Radiocarbon. 2017;59: 1809–1833. https://doi.org/10.1017/RDC.2017.108

16. Reimer P, Bard E, Bayliss A, Beck J, Blackwell P, Bronk Ramsey C. IntCal13 and Marine13 Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curves 0–50,000 Years cal BP. Radiocarbon. 2013;55: 1869–1887. https://doi.org/10.2458/azu_js_rc.55.16947

17. Chhem RK, Brothwell DR. Paleoradiology. Imaging Mummies and Fossils. Berlin: Springer; 2008.

18. Lynnerup N. Mummies. Yrbk Phys Anthropol. 2007;134 (Supplement 45): 162–190. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.20728

19. Ubelaker DH. Human Skeletal Remains. Excavation, Analysis, Interpretation. Manuals of Archaeology, 2. Washington: Taraxacum; 1989.

20. Schaefer M, Black S, Scheuer L. Juvenile Osteology. A Laboratory and Field Manual. Second edition. Amsterdam: Academic Press; 2009.

21. Duday H. The Archaeology of the Dead. Lectures in Archaeothanatology. Oxford and Oakville: Oxbow Books; 2009.

22. Nilsson Stutz L. Embodied Rituals and Ritualized Bodies. Tracing Ritual Practices in Late Mesolithic Burials. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia Series in 8o; No 46. Lund: Wallin & Dahlholm Bokrtyckeri AB; 2003.

23. Boulestin B. Les sépultures mésolithiques de Téviec at Hoedic: révisions bioarchéologiques. Oxford: Archaeopress; 2016.

24. Peyroteo Stjerna R. On Death in the Mesolithic: or the Mortuary Practices of the Last Hunter-Gatherers of the South-Western Iberian Peninsula, 7th-6th Millennium BCE. OPIA, 60. Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University; 2016.

25. Tõrv M. Persistent Practices. A Multi-Disciplinary Study of Hunter-Gatherer Mortuary Remains from c. 6500–2600 cal. BC, Estonia. PhD Thesis, Tartu Ülikool: University of Tartu; 2016.

26. Girardi C. Traitements des corps et des restes humains en Égypte du Prédynastique à la fin de l’Ancien Empire (4400–2180 av. J.-C.). Montpellier: Université Paul-Valéry; 2016.

27. Meyer M, Kircher M. Illumina sequencing library preparation for highly multiplexed target capture and sequencing. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2010:5448. https://doi.org/10.1101/pdb.prot5448

28. Jónsson H, Ginolhac A, Schubert M, Johnson PLF, Orlando L. mapDamage2.0: fast approximate Bayesian estimates of ancient DNA damage parameters. Bioinformatics. 2013;29: 1682–1684. https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btt193 23613487

29. Haugan E, Holst B. Determining the fibrillar orientation of bast fibres with polarized light microscopy: the modified Herzog test (red plate test) explained. J Microsc. 2013;252: 159–168. https://doi.org/10.1111/jmi.12079 24020614

30. Catling D, Grayson J. Identification of vegetable fibres. Third edition. London: Archetype; 2004.

31. Rast-Eicher A. Fibres. Microscopy of Archaeological Textiles and Furs. Budapest: Archaeolingua; 2016.

32. Peets P, Leito I, Pelt J, Vahur S. Identification and classification of textile fibres using ATR-FT-IT spectroscopy with chemometric methods. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2017;173: 175–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2016.09.007 27643467

33. Huchet J-B. Insect remains and their traces: relevant fossil witnesses in the reconstruction of past funerary practices. Anthropologie. 2014;52: 329–346. http://puvodni.mzm.cz/Anthropologie/article.php?ID=1817

34. Wade AD, Nelson AJ, Garvin GJ. A synthetic radiological study of brain treatment in ancient Egyptian mummies. Homo. 2011;62: 248–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchb.2011.01.004 21481868

35. Hoffman H, Hudgins PA. Head and skull base features of nine Egyptian mummies: evaluation with high-resolution CT and reformation techniques. Am J Roentgenol. 2002;178: 1367–1376. https://doi.org/10.2214/ajr.178.6.1781367

36. Saleem SN. Variability in brain treatment during mummification of royal Egyptians dated to the 18th–20th dynasties: MDCT findings correlated with the archaeologic literature. Am J Roentgenol. 2013;200: 336–344. https://doi.org/10.2214/AJR.12.9405

37. Waldron T. Palaeopathology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2009.

38. Roberts C, Manchester K. The Archaeology of Disease. Third Edition. Ithaca: Cornell University Press; 2012.

39. Aufderheide AC. The Scientific Study of Mummies. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge; 2003.

40. Gray PHK. Notes concerning the position of arms and hands of mummies with a view to possible dating of the specimen. J Egypt Archaeol. 1972;58: 200–204. https://doi.org/10.1177/030751337205800117

41. Ikram S, Prates C, Sousa S, Oliveira C. A medley of mummies from Deir el-Bahari. PAM. 2018;27(2): 237–258. https://doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0013.3246

42. Davey J, Taylor JH, Drummer OH. The utilisation of forensic imaging in the investigation of Graeco-Roman child mummies. J Egypt Archaeol. 2014;100: 195–208. https://doi.org/10.1177/030751331410000111

43. Davey J, Drummer OH. The use of forensic radiology in determination of unexplained head injuries in child mummies—Cause of death or mummification damage? JoFRI. 2016;5: 20–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jofri.2015.10.002

44. Davey J, Craig PJG, Drummer OH. Dislodged teeth in four intact child mummies from Graeco/Roman Egypt (332 BCE—c. 395 CE): child abuse, accident or careless embalmers? Papers Anthropol. 2014;23(1): 18–28. https://doi.org/10.12697/poa.2014.23.1.02

45. Schuenemann VJ, Peltzer A, Welte B, van Pelt WP, Molak M, Wang C-C, et al. Ancient Egyptian mummy genomes suggest an increase of Sub-Saharan African ancestry in post-Roman periods. Nature Communications. 2017;8: 15694. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms15694 28556824

46. Loogväli E-L, Roostalu U, Malyarchuk BA, Derenko MV, Kivisild T, Metspalu E. Disuniting uniformity: a pied cladistic canvas of mtDNA haplogroup H in Eurasia. Mol Biol Evol. 2004;21: 2012–2021. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msh20 15254257

47. Ennafaa H, Cabrera VM, Abu-Amero KK, González AM, Amor MB, Bouhaha R. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup H structure in North Africa. BMC Genet. 2009;10:8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2156-10-8 19243582

48. Saunier JL, Irwin JA, Strouss KM, Ragab H, Sturk KA, Parsons TJ. Mitochondrial control region sequences from an Egyptian population sample. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2009;3: 97–103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsigen.2008.09.004

49. Pala M, Olivieri A, Achilli A, Accetturo M, Metspalu E, Reidla M. Mitochondrial DNA signals of late glacial recolonization of Europe from near eastern refugia. Am J Hum Genet. 2012;90: 915–924. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.04.003 22560092

50. Pagani L, Schiffels S, Gurdasani D, Danecek P, Scally A, Chen Y. Tracing the route of modern humans out of Africa by using 225 human genome sequences from Ethiopians and Egyptians. Am J Hum Genet. 2015;96: 986–991. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.04.019 26027499

51. Font-Porterias N, Solé-Morata N, Serra-Vidal G, Bekada A, Fadhlaoui-Zid K, Zalloua P. The genetic landscape of Mediterranean North African populations through complete mtDNA sequences. Ann Hum Biol. 2018;45: 98–104. https://doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2017.1413133 29382280

52. Kujanová M, Pereira L, Fernandes V, Pereira JB, Cerný V. Near eastern Neolithic genetic input in a small oasis of the Egyptian Western Desert. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2009;140: 336–346. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.21078 19425100

53. Bekada A, Arauna LR, Deba T, Calafell F, Benhamamouch S, Comas D. Genetic heterogeneity in Algerian human populations. PloS One. 2015;10: 0138453. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138453

54. Ménager M, Azémard C, Vieillescazes C. Study of Egyptian mummification balms by FT-IR spectroscopy and GC–MS. Microchem J. 2014;114: 32–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2013.11.018

55. Copley MS, Bland HA, Rose P, Horton M, Evershed RP. Gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric and stable carbon isotopic investigations of organic residues of plant oils and animal fats employed as illuminants in archaeological lamps from Egypt. The Analyst. 2005;130: 860–871. https://doi.org/10.1039/b500403a 15912234

56. Colombini MP, Modugno F. Organic Materials in Art and Archaeology. In: Colombini MP, Modugno F, editors. Organic Mass Spectrometry in Art and Archaeology. Chichester: Wiley; 2009. pp. 1–36.

57. Brettell R, Martin W, Atherton-Woolham S, Stern B, McKnight L. Organic residue analysis of Egyptian votive mummies and their research potential. Studies in Conservation. 2017;62: 68–82. https://doi.org/10.1179/2047058415Y.0000000027

58. Derrick MR, Stulik D, Landury JM. Infrared Spectroscopy in Conservation Science. Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute; 1999.

59. Łucejko JJ, Lluveras-Tenorio A, Modugno F, Ribechini E, Colombini MP. An analytical approach based on X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to characterize Egyptian embalming materials. Microchem J. 2012;103: 110–118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2012.01.014

60. Buckley S, Clark KA, Evershed R. Complex Organic Balms of Pharaonic Animal Mummies. Nature. 2004;431: 294–299. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02849 15372029

61. Ribechini E, Modugno F, Baraldi C, Baraldi P, Colombini MP. An integrated analytical approach for characterizing an organic residue from an archaeological glass bottle recovered in Pompeii (Naples, Italy). Talanta. 2008;74: 555–561. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2007.06.026 18371675

62. Jones J, Higham TFG, Oldfield R, O’Connor TP, Buckley SA. Evidence for Prehistoric Origins of Egyptian Mummification in Late Neolithic Burials. Plos One. 2014;9: e103608. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103608 25118605

63. Benson GG, Hemingway SR, Leach FN. The analysis of wrappings of mummy 1770. In: David AR, editor. The Manchester Museum Mummy Project: Multidisciplinary Research on Ancient Egyptian Mummified Remains. Manchester: Manchester Museum; 1979. pp. 119–132.

64. Tchapla A, Méjanelle P, Bleton J, Goursaud S. Characterisation of embalming materials of a mummy of the Ptolemaic era. Comparison with balms from mummies of different eras. J Sep Sci. 2004;27: 217–234. https://doi.org/10.1002/jssc.200301607 15334909

65. Łucejko J, Connan J, Orsini S, Ribechini E, Modugno F. Chemical analyses of Egyptian mummification balms and organic residues from storage jars dated from the Old Kingdom to the Copto-Byzantine period. J Archaeol Sci. 2017;85: 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2017.06.015

66. Vahur S, Teearu A, Peets P, Joosu L, Leito I. ATR-FT-IR spectral collection of conservation materials in the extended region of 4000–80 cm–1. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2016;408: 3373–3379. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-016-9411-5 26968569

67. Davies E. Mummy mania. Chemistry World. 2011;8(2): 48–51. https://www.chemistryworld.com/features/mummy-mania/3004702.article

68. Vogelsang-Eastwood G. Textiles. In: Nicholson P, Shaw I, editors. Ancient Egyptian materials and technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2000. pp. 275–314.

69. Riggs C. Unwrapping ancient Egypt. London: Bloomsbury Academic; 2014.

70. Gleba M, Harris S. The first plant bast fibre technology: identifying splicing in archaeological textiles. Archaeol Anthropol Sci. 2019;11: 2329–2346. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-018-0677-8

71. Hallmann A. More items of funerary linen from the Deir el-Bahari burial assemblages. PAM. 2015;24(2): 113–136. https://doi.org/10.5604/01.3001.0010.0178

72. Barber EW. Prehistoric textiles: the development of cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Age with special reference to the Aegean. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 1991.

73. Walton P, Eastwood G. A Brief Guide to the Cataloguing of Archaeological Textiles. York: Wordplex Wordprocessing Bureau; 1983.

74. Kemp BJ, Vogelsang-Eastwood G. The ancient textile industry at Amarna. London: Egypt Exploration Society; 2001.

75. Jørgensen LB. Textiles from Mons Claudianus, ‘Abu Sha’ar and other Roman Sites in the Eastern Desert. In: Brun J-P, Faucher T, Redon B, Sidebotham S, editors. The Eastern Desert of Egypt during the Greco-Roman Period: Archaeological Reports. Paris: Collège de France; 2018.

76. Name J, Bumroongsook S. Bionomics of the Casemaking Clothes Moth, Tinea pellionella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae). International Conference on Agricultural, Ecological and Medical Sciences (AEMS-2015) Feb. 10–11, 2015. Penang (Malaysia); 2015.

77. Panagiotakopulu E. Insect remains from the collections in the Egyptian Museum of Turin. Archaeometry. 2003;45: 355–362. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-4754.00113

78. Panagiotakopulu E. New records for ancient pests: archaeoentomology in Egypt. J Archaeol Sci. 2001;28: 1235–1246. https://doi.org/10.1006/jasc.2001.0697

79. Christeller JT, Markwick NP, Burgess EPJ. Midgut proteinase activities of three keratinolytic larvae, Hofmannophila pseudospretella, Tineola bisselliella, and Anthrenocerus australis, and the effect of proteinase inhibitors on proteolysis. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 1994;25: 159–173. https://doi.org/10.1002/arch.940250207

80. Fanous AA, Couldwell WT. Transnasal excerebration surgery in ancient. Egypt J Neurosurg. 2012;116: 743–748. https://doi.org/10.3171/2011.12.JNS11417 22224784

81. Wade AD, Nelson AJ. Radiological evaluation of the evisceration tradition in ancient Egyptian mummies. Homo. 2013;64: 1–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchb.2012.11.005 23290862

82. Buckley SA, Evershed RP. Organic chemistry of embalming agents in Pharaonic and Graeco-Roman mummies. Nature. 2001;413: 837–841. https://doi.org/10.1038/35101588 11677605

83. Piombino-Mascali D, Jankauskas R, Snitkuvienė A, Rutkauskas T, Sutherland ML. Radiological and archaeological investigation of a mummy from Roman Egypt curated in the National Museum of Lithuania. Anthropolog Anz. 2016;73: 69–79. https://doi.org/10.1127/anthranz/2016/0593

84. Piombino-Mascali D, Jankauskas R, Snitkuvienė A, Ikram S, Sutherland ML. On the human remains contained in Count Aleksander Branicki’s Egyptian coffin. Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections. 2017;15: 11–17. https://journals.uair.arizona.edu/index.php/jaei/article/view/20495

85. Piombino-Mascali D, McKnight L, Snitkuvienė A, Jankauskas R, Tamošiūnas A, Valančius R. et al. From Egypt to Lithuania: Marija Rudzinskaitė-Arcimavičienė’s mummy and its radiological investigation. In: Ikram S, Kaiser J, Walker R, editors. Egyptian Bioarchaeology: Humans, Animals, and the Environment. Leiden: Sidestone Press; 2015. pp. 95–104.


Článek vyšel v časopise

PLOS One


2020 Číslo 1