The development and validation of a measurement instrument to investigate determinants of health care utilisation for low back pain in Ethiopia

Autoři: Getahun Kebede Beyera aff001;  Jane O’Brien aff001;  Steven Campbell aff001
Působiště autorů: School of Nursing, College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania, Australia aff001;  Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227801


Introduction and objectives

Low back pain (LBP) is a highly prevalent and disabling public health problem globally. However, little is known about factors affecting health care utilisation for optimal management of the pain, and there is no validated instrument to derive epidemiological data for a better understanding of these factors. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an instrument used to measure determinants of health care utilisation for LBP in Ethiopia.


The relevant domains of potential determinants of health care utilisation for LBP were identified following a comprehensive review of the literature. Items relating to each domain were then generated by considering the context of Ethiopia, and where necessary, existing items were adapted. The instrument was then translated, and an expert panel reviewed the instrument for content validity, clarity and any other suggestions. Using the data collected from 1303 adults with LBP, factorial validity was assessed by conducting principal component and parallel analyses. Internal consistency reliability was also assessed using Cronbach’s alpha. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cohen Kappa statistic were calculated to evaluate temporal stability of the instrument.


Parallel analysis showed that there were six components with Eigenvalues (obtained from principal component analysis) exceeding the corresponding criterion values for a randomly generated data matrix of the same size. Cronbach’s alpha for the internal consistency reliability ranged from 0.65 to 0.82. In assessing temporal stability, ICC ranged from 0.60, 95% CI: 0.23–0.98 to 0.95, 95% CI: 0.81–1.00 while Cohen Kappa ranged from 0.72, 95% CI: 0.49–0.94 to 0.93, 95% CI: 0.85–1.00.


This study demonstrated that the newly developed instrument has an overall good level of content and factorial validity, internal consistency reliability, and temporal stability. In this way, this instrument is appropriate for measuring determinants of health care utilisation among people with LBP in Ethiopia.

Klíčová slova:

Behavioral and social aspects of health – Ethiopia – Health care utilization – Lower back pain – Measurement equipment – Pain sensation – Principal component analysis – Research validity


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