Towards a bottom-up understanding of antimicrobial use and resistance on the farm: A knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey across livestock systems in five African countries

Autoři: Mark A. Caudell aff001;  Alejandro Dorado-Garcia aff002;  Suzanne Eckford aff002;  Chris Creese aff002;  Denis K. Byarugaba aff003;  Kofi Afakye aff004;  Tamara Chansa-Kabali aff005;  Folorunso O. Fasina aff006;  Emmanuel Kabali aff007;  Stella Kiambi aff001;  Tabitha Kimani aff001;  Geoffrey Mainda aff008;  Peter E. Mangesho aff009;  Francis Chimpangu aff010;  Kululeko Dube aff007;  Bashiru Boi Kikimoto aff011;  Eric Koka aff012;  Tendai Mugara aff007;  Bachana Rubegwa aff006;  Samuel Swiswa aff013
Působiště autorů: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Nairobi, Kenya aff001;  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy aff002;  College of Veterinary Medicine, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda aff003;  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Accra, Ghana aff004;  Department of Psychology, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia aff005;  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania aff006;  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Harare, Zimbabwe aff007;  Department of Veterinary Services, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Lusaka, Zambia aff008;  National Institute for Medical Research, Amani Medical Research Centre, Muheza, Tanzania aff009;  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Lusaka, Zambia aff010;  Public Health & Food Safety Unit, Veterinary Service, Accra, Ghana aff011;  Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana aff012;  Division of Veterinary Services, Department of Livestock and Veterinary Services, Harare, Zimbabwe aff013
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0220274


The nutritional and economic potentials of livestock systems are compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. A major driver of resistance is the misuse and abuse of antimicrobial drugs. The likelihood of misuse may be elevated in low- and middle-income countries where limited professional veterinary services and inadequately controlled access to drugs are assumed to promote non-prudent practices (e.g., self-administration of drugs). The extent of these practices, as well as the knowledge and attitudes motivating them, are largely unknown within most agricultural communities in low- and middle-income countries. The main objective of this study was to document dimensions of knowledge, attitudes and practices related to antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in livestock systems and identify the livelihood factors associated with these dimensions. A mixed-methods ethnographic approach was used to survey households keeping layers in Ghana (N = 110) and Kenya (N = 76), pastoralists keeping cattle, sheep, and goats in Tanzania (N = 195), and broiler farmers in Zambia (N = 198), and Zimbabwe (N = 298). Across countries, we find that it is individuals who live or work at the farm who draw upon their knowledge and experiences to make decisions regarding antimicrobial use and related practices. Input from animal health professionals is rare and antimicrobials are sourced at local, privately owned agrovet drug shops. We also find that knowledge, attitudes, and particularly practices significantly varied across countries, with poultry farmers holding more knowledge, desirable attitudes, and prudent practices compared to pastoralist households. Multivariate models showed that variation in knowledge, attitudes and practices is related to several factors, including gender, disease dynamics on the farm, and source of animal health information. Study results emphasize that interventions to limit antimicrobial resistance should be founded upon a bottom-up understanding of antimicrobial use at the farm-level given limited input from animal health professionals and under-resourced regulatory capacities within most low- and middle-income countries. Establishing this bottom-up understanding across cultures and production systems will inform the development and implementation of the behavioral change interventions to combat antimicrobial resistance globally.

Klíčová slova:

Antimicrobial resistance – Antimicrobials – Farms – Livestock – Livestock care – Poultry – Veterinarians – Veterinary diseases


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