LTA1 and dmLT enterotoxin-based proteins activate antigen-presenting cells independent of PKA and despite distinct cell entry mechanisms

Autoři: Eduardo Valli aff001;  Robin L. Baudier aff001;  Amanda J. Harriett aff001;  Elizabeth B. Norton aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, United States of America aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article


Enterotoxin-based proteins are powerful manipulators of mucosal immunity. The A1 domain of heat-labile enterotoxin from E. coli, or LTA1, is a newer adjuvant from this family under investigation for intranasal vaccines. Although LTA1 has been examined in mouse vaccination studies, its ability to directly stimulate immune cells compared to related adjuvant proteins has not been well explored. Here, we perform the first rigorous examination of LTA1’s effect on antigen presenting cells (APC) using a human monocyte cell line THP-1. To better understand LTA1’s stimulatory effects, we compared it to dmLT, or LT-R192G/L211A, a related AB5 adjuvant in clinical trials for oral or parenteral vaccines. LTA1 and dmLT both activated APCs to upregulate MHC-II (HLA-DR), CD86, cytokine secretion (e.g., IL-1β) and inflammasome activation. The effect of LTA1 on surface marker changes (e.g., MHC-II) was highly dose-dependent whereas dmLT exhibited high MHC-II expression regardless of dose. In contrast, cytokine secretion profiles were similar and dose-dependent after both LTA1 and dmLT treatment. Cellular activation by LTA1 was independent of ganglioside binding, as pre-treatment with purified GM1 blocked the effect of dmLT but not LTA1. Unexpectedly, while activation of the inflammasome and cytokine secretion by LTA1 or dmLT was blocked by the protein kinase A inhibitor H89 (similar to previous reports), these responses were not inhibited by a more specific PKA peptide inhibitor or antagonist; thus Indicating that a novel and unknown mechanism is responsible for inflammasome activation and cytokine secretion by LT proteins. Lastly, LTA1 stimulated a similar cytokine profile in primary human monocytes as it did in THP1 cells, including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and TNFα. Thus, we report that LTA1 protein programs a dendritic cell-like phenotype in APCs similar to dmLT in a mechanism that is independent of PKA activation and GM1 binding and entry.

Klíčová slova:

Antigen-presenting cells – Cell differentiation – Cytokines – Immunologic adjuvants – Inflammasomes – Monocytes – Secretion – Vaccines


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