Intra-individual variation of particles in exhaled air and of the contents of Surfactant protein A and albumin

Autoři: Spela Kokelj aff001;  Jeong-Lim Kim aff001;  Marianne Andersson aff001;  Gunilla Runström Eden aff001;  Björn Bake aff002;  Anna-Carin Olin aff001
Působiště autorů: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden aff001;  Unit of Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article



Particles in exhaled air (PEx) provide samples of respiratory tract lining fluid from small airways containing, for example, Surfactant protein A (SP-A) and albumin, potential biomarkers of small airway disease. We hypothesized that there are differences between morning, noon, and afternoon measurements and that the variability of repeated measurements is larger between days than within days.


PEx was obtained in sixteen healthy non-smoking adults on 11 occasions, within one day and between days. SP-A and albumin were quantified by ELISA. The coefficient of repeatability (CR), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and coefficient of variation (CV) were used to assess the variation of repeated measurements.


SP-A and albumin increased significantly from morning towards the noon and afternoon by 13% and 25% on average, respectively, whereas PEx number concentration and particle mean mass did not differ significantly between the morning, noon and afternoon. Between-day CRs were not larger than within-day CRs.


Time of the day influences the contents of SP-A and albumin in exhaled particles. The variation of repeated measurements was rather high but was not influenced by the time intervals between measurements.

Klíčová slova:

Albumins – Asthma – Biomarkers – Diurnal variations – Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – Normal distribution – Spirometry – Surfactants


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