Incidence and predictors of loss to follow up among adult HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy in University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital: A competing risk regression modeling

Autoři: Achamyeleh Birhanu Teshale aff001;  Adino Tesfahun Tsegaye aff001;  Haileab Fekadu Wolde aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227473



Loss to follow up after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is common in Africa, particularly in Ethiopia and it is a considerable obstacle for the effectiveness of the ART program. Mortality is a competing risk of loss to follow up but it is often overlooked and there is limited evidence about the incidence and predictors of loss to follow up in the presence of competing events.


To assess the Incidence and predictors of loss to follow up among adult HIV patients on ART in University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2018.


Institution based retrospective follow up study was conducted in University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. A Gray’s test and cumulative incidence curve were used to compare the cumulative incidence function of loss to follow up. Bivariable and multivariable competing risk regression models were fitted to identify the predictors of lost to follow up and those variables with p-value <0.05 in the multivariable analysis was considered as significant predictors of lost to follow up.


A total of 531 adult HIV patients on ART were included in the analysis. The incidence rate of loss to follow up in this study was 10.90 (95% CI: 8.9–13.2) per 100 person years. Being age group 15–30 years (aSHR = 2.01; 95%CI;1.11–3.63), being daily laborer(aSHR = 2.60; 95%CI;1.45–4.66), not receiving cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (aSHR = 2.66; 95%CI;1.68–4.21), not receiving isoniazid preventive therapy(aSHR = 4.57; 95% CI;1.60–13.08), ambulatory functional status (aSHR = 1.61; 95% CI; 1.02–2.51) and taking AZT-3TC-NVP medication at start of ART(aSHR = 2.01; 95% CI; 1.16–3.78) were significant predictors of lost to follow up.


In this study the incidence of lost to follow up was high. Young people, daily laborer, ambulatory patients and those taking AZT-3TC-NVP as well as those who did not take opportunistic prophylaxis were at higher risk of loss to follow up. Therefore, giving special attention to the high-risk groups for lost to follow up highlighted in this study could decrease the rate of LTFU.

Klíčová slova:

Antiretroviral therapy – Data processing – Ethiopia – HIV – HIV infections – Opportunistic infections – Professions – Walking


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