A bushel of viruses: Identification of seventeen novel putative viruses by RNA-seq in six apple trees


Autoři: Alice A. Wright aff001;  Alex R. Cross aff001;  Scott J. Harper aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Plant Pathology, Washington State University, Prosser, WA, United States of America aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227669

Souhrn

Apple decline in Washington state has been increasing in incidence, particularly on Honeycrisp trees grown on G.935 rootstock. In this disease the trees exhibit dieback with necrosis at the graft union and in the rootstock. The cause of this disease remains unknown. To identify viral candidates, RNA-seq was performed on six trees: four trees exhibiting decline and two healthy trees. Across the samples, eight known viruses and Apple hammerhead viroid were detected, however none appear to be specifically associated with the disease. A BLASTx analysis of the RNA-seq data was performed to identify novel viruses that might be associated with apple decline. Seventeen novel putative viruses were detected, including an ilarvirus, two tombus-like viruses, a barna-like virus, a picorna-like virus, three ourmia-like viruses, three partiti-like viruses, and two narna-like viruses. Four additional viruses could not be classified. Three of the viruses appeared to be missing key genes, suggesting they may be dependent upon helper viruses for their function. Others showed a specific tropism, being detected only in the roots or only in the leaves. While, like the known apple viruses, none were consistently associated with diseased trees, it is possible these viruses may have a synergistic effect when co-infecting that could contribute to disease. Or the presence of these viruses may weaken the trees for some other factor that ultimately causes decline. Additional research will be needed to determine how these novel viruses contribute to apple decline.

Klíčová slova:

Apples – Leaves – Phylogenetic analysis – RNA sequencing – RNA viruses – Trees – Viral genomics – Viral packaging


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