Quantifying the level of difficulty to treat major depressive disorder with antidepressants: Treatment Resistance to Antidepressants Evaluation Scale

Autoři: Tzu-Yu Liu aff001;  Po-Hsiu Kuo aff002;  Mong-Liang Lu aff003;  Ming-Chyi Huang aff004;  Chun-Hsin Chen aff003;  Tzu-Hua Wu aff005;  Sabrina Wang aff006;  Wei-Chung Mao aff007;  Hsi-Chung Chen aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan aff001;  Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan aff002;  Department of Psychiatry, Wan-Fang Hospital; Taipei & School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan aff003;  Department of Psychiatry, Taipei City Hospital, Songde Branch, Taipei, Taiwan aff004;  Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan aff005;  Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan aff006;  Department of Psychiatry, Cheng-Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan aff007
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0227614



The present study aimed to develop a new scale to evaluate the level of difficulty in treating major depressive disorder with antidepressants based on the lifetime treatment profile.


In addition to evaluating the difficulty of treatment with antidepressants (A subscale), the Treatment Resistance to Antidepressants Evaluation Scale (TRADES) is comprised of a subscale to account for the attributes that compromise the efficacy of treatment (B subscale). One hundred and six participants aged 18 to 65 years with remitted major depressive disorder were enrolled. Eligible cases were those with at least 2 years from disease onset until the scoring date of the TRADES (the index date), with a complete treatment record. Various psychosocial and clinical features, such as neuroticism, harm avoidance, and utilization of psychiatric services, were used to validate the TRADES.


The mean duration of the course before and after the index date were 5.5 ± 3.5 and 3.1 ± 1.7 years, respectively. In a multiple regression analysis, the final total scores of the TRADES independently correlated with higher levels of neuroticism and harm avoidance. Total scores were also associated with a higher utilization of psychiatric outpatient and admission services before the index date. Furthermore, it is thought that total scores could predict a higher number of visits to psychiatric outpatient, emergency, and admission services following the index date.


The TRADES has acceptable validity and could help to quantify the level of treatment difficulty with antidepressants in major depressive disorder.

Klíčová slova:

Antidepressants – Critical care and emergency medicine – Depression – Outpatients – Personality tests – Personality traits – Psychological and psychosocial issues – Psychotherapy


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