The effect of spatial position and age within an egg-clutch on embryonic development and key metabolic enzymes in two clownfish species, Amphiprion ocellaris and Amphiprion frenatus
Andreas Kunzmann aff001; Valeska C. Diemel aff001
Působiště autorů: Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research, Fahrenheitsstraße, Bremen, Germany aff001; University of Bremen, Bibliothekstraße, Bremen, Germany aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
Since the size of newly hatched larval fish is directly related to egg size, small differences in initial egg size can be critical to survival and further development of offspring. Underlying processes causing size variation in fish offspring are still not entirely understood. In this study we investigated whether the spatial position of an individual egg within a clutch affects size variation in two benthic spawning coral reef fishes, the clownfishes Amphiprion ocellaris and A. frenatus. To evaluate the effects of within-clutch position on embryonic development, egg growth metrics and protein content were analysed on day 2, 5 and 8 after deposition (adp). Additionally the activities of the key metabolic enzymes citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were investigated to evaluate the physiological status of the embryos. Central eggs of A. frenatus were significantly longer and heavier than peripheral eggs only on day 2 and 5 adp (2.07 mg, 2.59 mm vs. 1.84 mg, 2.49 mm). No significant differences were observed in A. ocellaris between eggs originating from a central or peripheral (5 mm from edge) position (1.33 mg, 2.26 mm vs. 1.15 mg, 2,18 mm). Diameter of the eyes did not differ between the two fish species nor between different positions, for any age group. The protein content of eggs (7.5% of wet weight) was independent of age, position and species. Enzymatic activity increased from 2 adp until peak activity was observed for both enzymes on day 8 adp, independent from position. The range of CS- and LDH-activity was 0.3–13.0 and 0.2–71.7 U g-1 wet weight, respectively. Significant differences in enzymatic activity were observed between age groups in both species, which in connection with significantly larger eggs of A. frenatus at day 2 and 5 adp could hint at a better O2 supply of central eggs. Potential implications for captive breeding are given.
Clutches – Embryos – Enzyme metabolism – Enzymes – Eyes – Fish physiology – Larvae – Marine fish
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