Characterization of black patina from the Tiber River embankments using Next-Generation Sequencing

Autoři: Federica Antonelli aff001;  Alfonso Esposito aff002;  Ludovica Calvo aff003;  Valerio Licursi aff004;  Philippe Tisseyre aff005;  Sandra Ricci aff006;  Manuela Romagnoli aff001;  Silvano Piazza aff002;  Francesca Guerrieri aff003
Působiště autorů: Department of Innovation of Biological Systems, Food and Forestry (DIBAF), Tuscia University, Viterbo, Italy aff001;  Department of Cellular, Computational and Integrative Biology–CIBIO, University of Trento, Trento, Italy aff002;  Center for Life NanoScience@Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Rome, Italy aff003;  Institute for Systems Analysis and Computer Science “Antonio Ruberti”, National Research Council, Rome, Italy aff004;  Soprintendenza del Mare, Regione Sicilia, Palermo, Italy aff005;  Biology Laboratory, Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione e per il Restauro (ISCR), Rome, Italy aff006;  Epigenetics and epigenomic of hepatocellular carcinoma, U1052, Cancer Research Center of Lyon (CRCL), Lyon, France aff007
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article


Black patinas are very common biological deterioration phenomena on lapideous artworks in outdoor environments. These substrates, exposed to sunlight, and atmospheric and environmental agents (i.e. wind and temperature changes), represent extreme environments that can only be colonized by highly versatile and adaptable microorganisms. Black patinas comprise a wide variety of microorganisms, but the morphological plasticity of most of these microorganisms hinders their identification by optical microscopy. This study used Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) (including shotgun and amplicon sequencing) to characterize the black patina of the travertine embankments (muraglioni) of the Tiber River in Rome (Italy). Overall, the sequencing highlighted the rich diversity of bacterial and fungal communities and allowed the identification of more than one hundred taxa. NGS confirmed the relevance of coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria observed by optical microscopy and revealed an informative landscape of the fungal community underlining the presence of microcolonial fungi and phylloplane yeasts. For the first time high-throughput sequencing allowed the exploration of the expansive diversity of bacteria in black patina, which has so far been overlooked in routine analyses. Furthermore, the identification of euendolithic microorganisms and weathering agents underlines the biodegradative role of black patina, which has often been underestimated. Therefore, the use of NGS to characterize black patinas could be useful in choosing appropriate conservation treatments and in the monitoring of stone colonization after the restoration interventions.

Klíčová slova:

Bacteria – Bacterial taxonomy – Cyanobacteria – Fungi – Ribosomal RNA – Sequence databases – Shotgun sequencing – Optical microscopy


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