Association of benzodiazepines, opioids and tricyclic antidepressants use and falls in trauma patients: Conditional effect of age

Autoři: Sergio Cordovilla-Guardia aff001;  Tania Bautista Molina aff003;  Cristina Franco-Antonio aff001;  Esperanza Santano-Mogena aff001;  Raquel Vilar-López aff004
Působiště autorů: Nursing Department, Nursing and Occupational Therapy College, University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain aff001;  Health and Care Research Group (GISyC), University of Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain aff002;  Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain aff003;  Mind, Brain and Behavior Research Centre, University of Granada, Granada, Spain aff004;  Andalusian Observatory on Drugs and Addictions, Granada, Spain aff005
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227696



The relationship between benzodiazepines, opioids and tricyclic antidepressants and trauma is of great importance because of increased consumption and the growing evidence of a positive association among older adults. The objective of this study was to determine the effect size of the association between the consumption of psychotropic medications /opioids and falls in patients who have suffered trauma by studying the role of other variables in this relationship.


From 2011 to 2016, the presence of benzodiazepines, opioids and tricyclic antidepressants and other drugs in 1060 patients admitted for trauma at a level I trauma hospital was analysed. Multivariate models were used to measure the adjusted effect size of the association between consumption of benzodiazepines, opioids and tricyclic antidepressants and falls, and the effect of age on this association was studied.


A total of 192 patients tested positive for benzodiazepines, opioids and tricyclic antidepressants, with same-level falls being the most frequent mechanism of injury in this group (40.1%), with an odds ratio of 1.96 (1.40–2.75), p < 0.001. Once other covariates were introduced, this association was not observed, leaving only age, gender (woman) and, to a lesser extent, sensory conditions as variables associated with falls. Age acted as an effect modifier between benzodiazepines, opioids and tricyclic antidepressants and falls, with significant effect sizes starting at 51.9 years of age.


The association between the consumption of benzodiazepines, opioids and tricyclic antidepressants and falls in patients admitted for trauma is conditioned by other confounding variables, with age being the most influential confounding variable.

Klíčová slova:

Alcohol consumption – Antidepressants – Cannabis – Cognitive impairment – Elderly – Falls – Mental health and psychiatry – Opioids


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