Long term conjugated linoleic acid supplementation modestly improved growth performance but induced testicular tissue apoptosis and reduced sperm quality in male rabbit

Autoři: A. M. Abdelatty aff001;  O. A. M. Badr aff002;  S. A. Mohamed aff002;  M. S. Khattab aff003;  SH. M. Dessouki aff004;  O. A. A. Farid aff005;  A. A. Elolimy aff006;  O. G. Sakr aff004;  M. A. Elhady aff009;  G. Mehesen aff004;  M. Bionaz aff010
Působiště autorů: Department of Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt aff001;  Department of Genetics and Genetic Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, Qalyubia, Egypt aff002;  Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt aff003;  Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt aff004;  Department of Physiology, National Organization for Drug Control and Research, Giza, Egypt aff005;  Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, United States of America aff006;  Arkansas Children’s Nutrition Center, Little Rock, AR, United States of America aff007;  Department of Animal Production, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt aff008;  Department of Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt aff009;  Department of Animal and Rangeland Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, United States of America aff010
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0226070


Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is known for its multiple benefits including improvement of growth, increasing lean mass, and anti-carcinogenic effects. However, when used in long-term supplementations CLA does not improve semen parameters in boar and bull and reduces fertility in Japanese quails. The content of unsaturated fatty acids in dietary lipids plays a significant role in spermatogenesis owning the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in plasma membrane of sperms. Whether CLA plays a role in testicular tissue and epididymal fat is still unknown. Therefore, in this study we hypothesize that long-term supplementation of equal proportion of CLA isomer mix (c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12- CLA) in rabbit bucks might alter male reproductive potentials. Twelve V-Line weaned male rabbits were used in 26 weeks trial, rabbits were individually raised and randomly allocated into three dietary groups. Control group (CON) received a basal diet, a group received 0.5% CLA (CLA 0.5%), and a group received 1% CLA (CLA 1%). Rabbits were euthanized at the end of the trial and several parameters were evaluated related to growth, semen quality, and testicular and epididymal tissue histopathology and transcriptome. The long-term supplementation of CLA increased feed intake by 5% and body weight by 2–3%. CLA 1% decreased sperm progressive motility. In testicular tissue L-carnitine and α-tocopherol were decreased by CLA supplementation. In epididymal fat, CLA tended to decrease concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the expression of SCD5 gene was upregulated by CLA 1% and CASP3 gene was upregulated by CLA 0.5%. Transcription of PPARG was downregulated by CLA. Feeding 1% CLA also decreased testicular epithelial thickness. Long-term supplementation of CLA modestly enhanced male rabbit growth, but negatively impacted male reproduction, especially at high dose of CLA.

Klíčová slova:

Body weight – Diet – Fats – Fatty acids – Hematoxylin staining – Rabbits – Semen – Sperm


1. Chen PB and Park Y. Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Human Health: Effects on Weight Control. In Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Abdominal Obesity. Academic Press. 2019; 355–382.

2. Mitchell PL and McLeod RS. Conjugated linoleic acid and atherosclerosis: studies in animal models. Biochemistry and Cell Biology. 2008; 86 (4), pp. 293–301. doi: 10.1139/o08-070 18756324

3. Viladomiu M, Hontecillas R, and Bassaganya-Riera, J. Modulation of inflammation and immunity by dietary conjugated linoleic acid. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2016; 785, pp. 87–95. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.03.095 25987426

4. Wood JD. Meat composition and nutritional value. In Lawrie´s Meat Science. 2017; Jan 1 (pp. 635–659). Woodhead Publishing.

5. Matin S, Nemati A, Ghobadi H, Alipanah-Moghadam R, and Rezagholizadeh L. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in patients with COPD. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2018; 13: p. 1449–1459. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S155985 29765212

6. Onakpoya IJ, Posadzki PP, Watson LK, Davies LA, and Ernst E. The efficacy of long-term conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on body composition in overweight and obese individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. European Journal of Nutrition. 2012; 51(2), pp. 127–134. doi: 10.1007/s00394-011-0253-9 21990002

7. Karimi R, Towhidi A, Zeinoaldini S, Rezayazdi K, Mousavi M, Safari H et al. Effects of supplemental conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on fresh and post‐thaw sperm quality of Holstein bulls. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 2017; 52(3), pp. 459–467. doi: 10.1111/rda.12932 28176378

8. Teixeira SMP, Chaveiro AEN, and da Silva JFM. Effect of trans-10, cis-12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid on boar semen quality after cryopreservation. Animal Reproduction. 2017; 14(2), pp. 400–405.

9. De Veth MJ, Bauman DE, Koch W, Mann GE, Pfeiffer AM and Butler WR. Efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid for improving reproduction: A multi-study analysis in early-lactation dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science. 2009; 92(6), pp. 2662–2669. doi: 10.3168/jds.2008-1845 19447999

10. Zamora-Zamora V, Figueroa-Velasco JL, Cordero-Mora JL, Nieto-Aquino R, García-Contreras ADC, Sánchez-Torres MT. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation does not improve boar semen quality and does not change its fatty acid profile. Veterinaria México. 2017; 4(3), pp. 1–15.

11. Khodaei H, Chamani M, Sadeghi A, and Hejazi H. Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) on hormones and factors involved in murine ovulation. Journal of Reproduction & Infertility. 2009; 10(2), pp. 101–108.

12. Aydin R, Karaman M, Toprak HHC, Ozugur AK, Aydin D, and Cicek T. The effect of long-term feeding of conjugated linoleic acid on fertility in Japanese quail. South African Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 36(2), pp. 99–104.

13. Ali TM. A manual for the primary animal health care worker. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 1994.

14. Gliozzi TM, Zaniboni L, Maldjian A, Luzi F, Maertens L, and Cerolini S. Quality and lipid composition of spermatozoa in rabbits fed DHA and vitamin E rich diets. Theriogenology. 2009; 71(6), pp. 910–919. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2008.10.022 19121864

15. National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Rabbits: 1977. National Academies Press; 1977 Feb 1.

16. Garcia MR, Amstalden M, Morrison CD, Keisler, DH, and Williams GL. Age at puberty, total fat and conjugated linoleic acid content of carcass, and circulating metabolic hormones in beef heifers fed a diet high in linoleic acid beginning at four months of age. J. Anim. Sci. 2003; 81(1), 261–268. doi: 10.2527/2003.811261x 12597397

17. AOAC. Official methods of analysis. 17th ed., Vols. 1 and 2. Gaithersburg, MD: Association of the Official Analytical Chemists, 2000.

18. Macari M, and Machado CR. Sexual maturity in rabbits defined by the physical and chemical characteristics of the semen. Laboratory Animals. 1978; 12: 37–39. doi: 10.1258/002367778780953305 625098

19. Boulbina I, Ain-Baziz H, Ilès I, Zenia S, Belabbas R, Temim S. Effect of birth season on onset of puberty and semen characteristics in male rabbit of Algerian population (Oryctolagus cuniculus). World Rabbit Science Association Proceedings 10 th World Rabbit Congress. 2012; 335–339.

20. Viudes-de-Castro MP, Lavara R, Safaa HM, Marco-Jiménez F, Mehaisen GMK, and Vicente JS. Effect of freezing extender composition and male line on semen traits and reproductive performance in rabbits. Animal. 2014; 8(5), pp. 765–770. doi: 10.1017/S1751731114000135 24534625

21. Perumal P. Effect of superoxide dismutase on semen parameters and antioxidant enzyme activities of liquid stored (5 C) Mithun (Bos frontalis) semen. Journal of Animals. 2014; 1–9. doi: 10.3390/ani5010001

22. Simón L, Funes AK, Yapur MA, Cabrillana ME, Monclus MA, Boarelli PV, et al. Manchette-acrosome disorders during spermiogenesis and low efficiency of seminiferous tubules in hypercholesterolemic rabbit model. PloS one. 2017; 12(2):e0172994. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172994 28241054

23. Ijaz A, Javed I, Aslam B, Khan JA, Khaliq T, Khan MZ, et al. Nephroprotective and antioxidant effects of Moringa Oleifera (Sohanjna) in paracetamol induced nephrotoxic albino rabbits. Pak. Vet. J. 2016; 36(3): 292–296.

24. Ahmed-Farid OA, Nasr M, Ahmed RF, and Bakeer RM. Beneficial effects of curcumin nano-emulsion on spermatogenesis and reproductive performance in male rats under protein deficient diet model: enhancement of sperm motility, conservancy of testicular tissue integrity, cell energy and seminal plasma amino acids content. Journal of Biomedical Science. 2017; 24(1), p. 66. doi: 10.1186/s12929-017-0373-5 28865467

25. Ling B, Aziz C, and Alcorn J. Systematic evaluation of key L-Carnitine homeostasis mechanisms during postnatal development in rat. Nutrition & Metabolism. 2012; 1:66.

26. McMurray CH, Blanchflower WJ, and Rice DA. Influence of extraction techniques on determination of alpha tocopherol in animal feedstuffs. Journal-Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1980; 63(6), pp. 1258–1261. 7451387

27. Abdelatty AM, Mohamed SA, Moustafa MMA, Al-Mokaddem AK, Baker MR, Elolimy AA, et al. Nutrigenomic effect of conjugated linoleic acid on growth and meat quality indices of growing rabbit. PLoS ONE. 2019; 14(10): e0222404. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0222404 31600212

28. O'fallon JV, Busboom JR, Nelson ML, and Gaskins CT. A direct method for fatty acid methyl ester synthesis: application to wet meat tissues, oils, and feedstuffs. J. Anim. Sci. 2007; 85(6), pp. 1511–1521. doi: 10.2527/jas.2006-491 17296772

29. Sirri F, Castellini C, Roncarati A, Franchini A, and Meluzzi A. Effect of feeding and genotype on the lipid profile of organic chicken meat. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 2010; 112(9), pp. 994–1002.

30. Aslan Koşar P, Tuncer H, Cihangir Uğuz A, Espino Palma J, Darıcı H, Onaran İ, Çiğ B, et al. The efficiency of Poly (ADP‐Ribose) Polymerase (PARP) cleavage on detection of apoptosis in an experimental model of testicular torsion. International Journal of Experimental Pathology. 2015. 96(5), pp. 294–300. doi: 10.1111/iep.12137 26303136

31. Sun Y, Wolcott RD, and Dowd SE. Tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing for the elucidation of microbial and functional gene diversity in any environment. In High-Throughput Next Generation Sequencing. 2011. pp. 129–141. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.

32. Norollahi SA, Kokhaee P, Rashidy-Pour A, Hojati V, Norollahi SE, Larijani LV, and Samadan AA. Comparison of Methods of RNA Extraction From Breast and Gastric Cancer Tissues. Crescent J. Med. Biol. Sci. 2018; 5(1), pp. 25–28.

33. Bionaz M and Loor JJ. Identification of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in the bovine mammary gland during the lactation cycle. Physiological Genomics. 2007; 29(3), 312–319. doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00223.2006 17284669

34. Andersen CL, Jensen JL, and Ørntoft TF. Normalization of real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR data: a model-based variance estimation approach to identify genes suited for normalization, applied to bladder and colon cancer data sets. Cancer Research. 2004; 64(15), pp. 5245–5250. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-0496 15289330

35. Wiegand BR, Sparks JC, Parrish FC, and Zimmerman, DR. Duration of feeding conjugated linoleic acid influences growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of finishing barrows. Journal of Animal Science. 2002; 80 (3), pp. 637–643. doi: 10.2527/2002.803637x

36. Moraes ML, Ribeiro AML, Santin E, and Klasing KC. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid and lutein on the growth performance and immune response of broiler chickens. Poultry Science. 2015; 95(2), pp. 237–246. doi: 10.3382/ps/pev325 26527712

37. Koronowicz AA, and Banks P. Antitumor properties of CLA-enriched food products. Nutrition and Cancer. 2018; 70(4), pp. 529–545. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2018.1460684 29697270

38. Onankpoya I, Posadzki P, Watson L, Davies L, and Ernst E. Efficacy of long-term conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation in the management of overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. European Journal of Nutrition. 2011; 51(2), 127–134. doi: 10.1007/s00394-011-0253-9

39. Lauridsen C, Mu H, and Henckel P. Influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and age at slaughtering on performance, slaughter-and meat quality, lipoproteins, and tissue deposition of CLA in barrows. Meat Science. 2005; 69(3), pp. 393–399. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2004.08.009 22062976

40. Szymczyk B, Pisulewski P, Szczurek W, and Hanczakowski P, The effects of feeding conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on rat growth performance, serum lipoproteins and subsequent lipid composition of selected rat tissues. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2000; 80(10), pp. 1553–1558.

41. Lindsey CE. Influence of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on body composition of weaned pigs. Ph.D. thesis, Sam Houston State University. 2017. Available from: https://shsu-ir.tdl.org/handle/20.500.11875/2188

42. Liu H, Wu F, Bai LL, Chen YF, Lai CH, Ren LQ et al. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid supplementation during late gestation on colostrum yield, fatty acid composition, and IgG concentrations in primiparous sows. Canadian Journal of Animal Science. 2018; 98(4), pp. 732–740.

43. Larsen TM, Toubro S, Gudmundsen O, and Astrup A. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 y does not prevent weight or body fat regain. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006; 83(3), pp. 606–612. doi: 10.1093/ajcn.83.3.606 16522907

44. Racine NM, Watras AC, Carrel AL, Allen DB, McVean JJ, Clark RR. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on body fat accretion in overweight or obese children. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2010; 91(5), pp. 1157–1164. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.28404 20200257

45. Gaullier JM, Halse J, Høye K, Kristiansen K, Fagertun H, Vik H, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for 1 y reduces body fat mass in healthy overweight humans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2004; 79(6), pp. 1118–1125. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/79.6.1118 15159244

46. Gaullier JM, Halse J, Høivik HO, Høye K, Syvertsen C, Nurminiemi Met al. Six months supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid induces regional-specific fat mass decreases in overweight and obese. British Journal of Nutrition. 2007; 97(3), pp. 550–560. doi: 10.1017/S0007114507381324

47. Corino C, Mourot J, Magni S, Pastorelli G, and Rosi F. Influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on growth, meat quality, lipogenesis, plasma leptin and physiological variables of lipid metabolism in rabbits. Journal of Animal Science. 2002; 80(4), pp. 1020–1028. doi: 10.2527/2002.8041020x 12002308

48. Vernet P, Aitken RJ, and Drevet JR. Antioxidant strategies in the epididymis. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. 2004; 216(1–2), pp. 31–39. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2003.10.069 15109742

49. Marco-Jiménez F, Vicente JS. Overweight in young males reduce fertility in rabbit model. PLoS ONE. 2017; 12(7): e0180679 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180679 28700645

50. Abd-Allah AR, Helal GK, Al-Yahya AA, Aleisa AM, Al-Rejaie SS, et al. Pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways which compromise sperm motility and survival may be altered by L-carnitine. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2009; 2(2), pp. 73–81. doi: 10.4161/oxim.2.2.8177 20357928

51. Castellini C, Lattaioli P, Dal Bosco A, Minelli A, and Mugnai C. Oxidative status and semen characteristics of rabbit buck as affected by dietary. Reproduction Nutrition Development. 2003; 43(1), pp. 91–103.

52. Chen WH, Li YJ, Wang MS, Kang ZC, Huang HL, and Shaw HM. Elevation of tissue α-tocopherol levels by conjugated linoleic acid in C57BL/6J mice is not associated with changes in vitamin E absorption or α-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman production. Nutrition. 2012; 28(1), pp. 59–66. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2011.04.006 21872434

53. Zeitz JO, Most E, and Eder K. Conjugated linoleic acid influences the metabolism of tocopherol in lactating rats but has little effect on tissue tocopherol concentrations in pups. Lipids in Health and Disease. 2016; 15(1), p. 102.

54. Sessler AM, Kaur N, Palta JP, and Ntambi JM. Regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA stability by polyunsaturated fatty acids in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1996; 271(47), pp. 29854–29858. doi: 10.1074/jbc.271.47.29854 8939925

55. Ntambi JM. Regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase by polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol. Journal of Lipid Research. 1999; 40(9), pp. 1549–1558. 10484602

56. Brown JM, Boysen MS, Jensen SS, Morrison RF, Storkson J, Lea Currie R, et al. Isomer-specific regulation of metabolism and PPARγ signaling by CLA in human preadipocytes. Journal of Lipid Research. 2003; 44(7), pp. 1287–1300. doi: 10.1194/jlr.M300001-JLR200 12730300

57. Ramiah SK, Meng GY, Sheau Wei T, Swee Keong Y, and Ebrahimi M. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid supplementation leads to downregulation of PPAR transcription in broiler chickens and reduction of adipocyte cellularity. PPAR Research, 2014; 1–10. doi: 10.1155/2014/137652 25309587

58. Hue JJ, Lee KN, Jeong JH, Lee SH, Lee YH, Jeong SW, Nam SY, Yun YW and Lee BJ. Anti-obesity activity of diglyceride containing conjugated linoleic acid in C57BL/6J ob/ob mice. Journal of Veterinary Science. 2009; 10(3), pp. 189–195. doi: 10.4142/jvs.2009.10.3.189 19687618

59. Liu KL and Belury MA. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces arachidonic acid content and PGE2 synthesis in murine keratinocytes. Cancer Letters.1998; 127(1–2), pp. 15–22. doi: 10.1016/s0304-3835(97)00479-5 9619853

60. Creasy D, Bube A, Rijk ED, Kandori H, Kuwahara M, Masson R. Proliferative and non-proliferative lesions of the rat and mouse male reproductive system. Toxicol. Pathol. 2012; 40:40S–121S; doi: 10.1177/0192623312454337 22949412

61. Mahdavi R, Faramarzi E, Mohammad-Zadeh M, Nasirimotlagh B, and Ghaemmaghami SJ. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on nutritional status, symptoms of eating problems and dietary intake in rectal cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy. Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research. 2013; 11(1–2), pp. 15–21.

62. Dym M and Madhwa Raj HG. Response of adult rat sertoli cells and leydig cells to depletion of luteinizing hormone and testosterone. Biology of Reproduction. 1977; 17(5), pp. 676–696. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod17.5.676 597535

63. Li J and Yuan J. Caspases in apoptosis and beyond. Oncogene. 2008; 27(48), p. 6194. doi: 10.1038/onc.2008.297 18931687

64. Mutomba MC, Yuan H, Konyavko M, Adachi S, Yokoyama CB, Esser V, et al. Regulation of the activity of caspases by L‐carnitine and palmitoyl carnitine. FEBS Letters. 2000; 478(1–2), pp. 19–25. doi: 10.1016/s0014-5793(00)01817-2 10922462

65. Miner JL, Cederberg CA, Nielsen MK, Chen X, and Baile CA. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), body fat, and apoptosis. Obesity Research. 2001; 9(2), pp. 129–134. doi: 10.1038/oby.2001.16 11316347

66. Nazari M, Karandish M, Jalali MT, and Saberi AH. Weight management effects of a mixture of conjugated linoleic acid and L-carnitine in diet induced obese rats. British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research. 2016; 12(1): 1–8. doi: 10.9734/BJMMR/2016/21609

67. Bezan P, Holland H, de Castro G, Cardoso J, Ovidio P, Calder P, et al. High dose of a conjugated linoleic acid mixture increases insulin resistance in rats fed either a low fat or a high fat diet. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes. 2018; 126, 379–386. doi: 10.1055/s-0043-118348 29388176

68. Parra P, Palou A, and Serra F. Moderate doses of conjugated linoleic acid reduce fat gain, maintain insulin sensitivity without impairing inflammatory adipose tissue status in mice fed a high-fat diet. Nutrition & Metabolism. 2010; 7(1), 5. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-7-5 20180981

69. Srinivasan V, Thombre DP, Lakshmanan S, and Chakrabarty AS. Effect of removal of epididymal fat on spermatogenesis in albino rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology.1986; 24(8), pp. 487–488. 3817886

70. Modaresi M, Mansouri A, and Khodaei HR. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid on male reproductive hormones in mice. Advance Journal of Food Science & Technology. 2013; 5(12), pp. 1618–1620.

71. Baartscheer A, Schumacher CA, Wüst RCI, Fiolet JWT, Stienen GJM, Coronel R, et al. Empagliflozin decreases myocardial cytoplasmic Na+ through inhibition of the cardiac Na+/H+ exchanger in rats and rabbits. Diabetologia. 2016; 60(3), 568–573. doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4134-x 27752710

72. Blay RM, Adjenti SK, Adutwum-Ofosu KK, Hottor BA, Ahenkorah J, Arko-Boham B, et al. Natural cocoa inhibits maternal hypercholesterolaemia-induced atherogenesis in rabbit pups. Cardiovascular Journal of Africa. 2019; 30(4): 208–215. doi: 10.5830/CVJA-2019-019 31140539

73. Sun X, Shen J, Liu C, Li S, Peng Y, Chen C et al. L-arginine and N-carbamoyl glutamic acid supplementation enhance young rabbit growth and immunity by regulating intestinal microbial community. Asian-Australas J. Anim. Sci. 2019. Available from: https://www.ajas.info/journal/view.php? doi: 10.5713/ajas.18.0984

74. Werner RA, Kobayashi R, Javadi MS, Köck Z, Wakabayashi H, Unterecker S. et al. Impact of novel antidepressants on cardiac 123i-metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake: experimental studies on SK-N-SH cells and healthy rabbits. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 59(7), 1099–1103. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.117.206045 29496989

75. Levingstone TJ, Thompson E, Matsiko A, Schepens A, Gleeson JP, O’Brien FJ. Multi-layered collagen-based scaffolds for osteochondral defect repair in rabbits. Acta Biomaterialia. 2016; 32, 149–160. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2015.12.034 26724503

76. Torrado J, Cain C, Mauro AG, Romeo F, Ockaili R, Chau VQ, et al. Sacubitril/valsartan averts adverse post-infarction ventricular remodeling and preserves systolic function in rabbits. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2018; 72(19), 2342–2356. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2018.07.102 30384891

77. Ma H, Zheng L, Liu Y, Zhao C, Harrison TJ, Ma Y, et al. Experimental infection of rabbits with rabbit and genotypes 1 and 4 hepatitis E viruses. PLoS ONE.2010; 5(2): e9160. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0009160 20161794

Článek vyšel v časopise


2020 Číslo 1