Detection of amitraz resistance and reduced treatment efficacy in the Varroa Mite, Varroa destructor, within commercial beekeeping operations

Autoři: Frank D. Rinkevich aff001
Působiště autorů: USDA-ARS Honey Bee Breeding, Genetics, and Physiology Laboratory, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States of America aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article


The parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the associated viruses it transmits are responsible for most instances of honey bee colony losses in the United States. As such, beekeepers utilize miticides to control Varroa populations. Widespread resistance has developed to the miticides fluvalinate and coumaphos. However, Varroa has largely maintained susceptibility to amitraz despite a long and extensive use history. Anecdotal reports of reduced amitraz effectiveness have been a widely discussed contemporary issue among commercial beekeepers. Amitraz resistance was measured by in vitro bioassays with technical amitraz as well as Apivar® efficacy tests. Amitraz resistance was evaluated in commercial beekeeping operations in Louisiana, New York, and South Dakota with a long history of amitraz use. This research shows that amitraz remains an effective Varroa control product in many operations. However, apiaries across operations displayed a wide range of amitraz resistance from no resistance to high resistance that resulted in Varroa control failure. The resistance ratios from in vitro amitraz bioassays were correlated with reduced Apivar® efficacy, demonstrating bona fide cases of Varroa control failures due to amitraz resistance. Therefore, amitraz resistance monitoring protocols need to be developed. A resistance monitoring network should be established to ensure the sustainability of miticide use for Varroa control.

Klíčová slova:

Acetones – Animal sociality – Bees – Honey bees – Mites – Pest control – Pesticides – Viral transmission and infection


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