An atlas of personality, emotion and behaviour

Autoři: Anthony E. D. Mobbs aff001
Působiště autorů: Department of Psychology, Faculty of Human Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia aff001
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227877


A novel two-dimensional matrix taxonomy, or atlas, of personality, emotion and behaviour is presented. The two dimensions of the atlas, affiliation and dominance, are demonstrated to have theoretical foundations in neurobiology and social psychology. Both dimensions are divided into five ordinal categories, creating a square matrix of 25 cells. A new catalogue of 20,669 English words descriptive of personality, emotion, behaviour, and power is also presented. The catalogue is more comprehensive than previous catalogues, and is novel in its inclusion of intrapersonal, group, and societal behaviours. All words in the catalogue were scored according to the atlas, facilitating visualisation in two dimensions. This enabled a contiguous and novel comparison of existing psychological taxonomies, as well as broader societal concepts such as leadership, ethics, and crime. Using the atlas, a novel psychological test is developed with improved sensitivity and specificity.

Klíčová slova:

Behavior – Catalogs – Emotions – Network analysis – Personality – Personality traits – Taxonomy – Controlled vocabularies


1. Leary T. Interpersonal diagnosis of personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation. New York: Ronald; 1957.

2. McAdams DP, Pals JL. A new Big Five: fundamental principles for an integrative science of personality. Am Psychol. 2006;61: 204–217. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.61.3.204 16594837

3. DeYoung CG. Cybernetic Big Five Theory. Journal of Research in Personality. 2015;56: 33–58. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2014.07.004

4. Cattell RB. Description and measurement of personality. Oxford, England: World Book Company; 1946.

5. American Psychological Association. APA Dictionary of Psychology. In: APA Dictionary of Psychology [Internet]. 2018.

6. Einstein A. On the Method of Theoretical Physics. Philos Sci. 1934;1: 163–169. Available:

7. Saucier G, Iurino K. High-dimensionality personality structure in the natural language: Further analyses of classic sets of English-language trait-adjectives. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2019. doi: 10.1037/pspp0000273 31714107

8. Saucier G, Srivastava S. What makes a good structural model of personality? Evaluating the Big Five and alternatives. In: Mikulincer M, Shaver PR, editors. Personality Processes and Individual Differences. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2015. pp. 283–305.

9. Bailey K. Typologies and taxonomies: An introduction to classification techniques. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage; 1994.

10. Ashton MC, Lee K, Goldberg LR, de Vries RE. Higher order factors of personality: do they exist? Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 2009;13: 79–91. doi: 10.1177/1088868309338467 19458345

11. Saucier G, Goldberg LR. The structure of personality attributes. In: Barrick MR, Ryan AM, editors. Personality and Work: Reconsidering the Role of Personality in Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2003.

12. Jones AB, Brown NA, Serfass DG, Sherman RA. Personality and density distributions of behavior, emotions, and situations. J Res Pers. 2017;69: 225–236. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2016.10.006

13. Spain JS, Eaton LG, Funder DC. Perspective on Personality: The Relative Accuracy of Self Versus Others for the Prediction of Emotion and Behavior. J Pers. 2000;68: 837–867. doi: 10.1111/1467-6494.00118 11001151

14. Higgins ET. Does personality provide unique explanations for behaviour? Personality as cross-person variability in general principles. Eur J Pers. 2000;14: 391–406. doi: 10.1002/1099-0984(200009/10)14:5<391::AID-PER394>3.0.CO;2-6

15. Argyle M. The Psychology of Interpersonal Behaviour: Michael Argyle. Penguin Books; 1978.

16. Burghardt GM. A place for emotions in behavior systems research. Behav Processes. 2019;166: 103881. doi: 10.1016/j.beproc.2019.06.004 31175907

17. Denton DA, McKinley MJ, Farrell M, Egan GF. The role of primordial emotions in the evolutionary origin of consciousness. Conscious Cogn. 2009;18: 500–514. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2008.06.009 18701321

18. Ekman P, Keltner D. Universal facial expressions of emotion. Segerstrale U, P Molnar P, eds Nonverbal communication: Where nature meets culture. 1997; 27–46. Available:

19. Darwin C. The expression of the emotions in man and animals. New York: Appleton; 1897.

20. Cattell RB. The description of personality: basic traits resolved into clusters. J Abnorm Soc Psychol. 1943;38: 476–506. doi: 10.1037/h0054116

21. Miller GA. The science of words. New York: Scientific American Library; 1996.

22. Conn SR, Rieke ML. 16PF fifth edition technical manual. Champaign: Institute for Personality & Ability Testing; 1994.

23. Lee K, Ashton MC. Psychometric Properties of the HEXACO Personality Inventory. Multivariate Behav Res. 2004;39: 329–358. doi: 10.1207/s15327906mbr3902_8 26804579

24. Digman JM. Personality Structure: Emergence of the Five-Factor Model. Annual review of psychology. 1990;41: 417–440. doi: 10.1146/

25. Eysenck HJ. The structure of phenoytypic personality traits: Comment. Am Psychol. 1993;48: 1299–1300. doi: 10.1037/0003-066x.48.12.1299.b

26. Raad BD. The replicability of the Big Five personality dimensions in three word-classes of the Dutch language. Eur J Pers. 1992;6: 15–29. doi: 10.1002/per.2410060103

27. De Raad B, Barelds DPH. A new taxonomy of Dutch personality traits based on a comprehensive and unrestricted list of descriptors. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2008;94: 347–364. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.94.2.347 18211182

28. Wiggins JS. An Informal History of the Interpersonal Circumplex Tradition. J Pers Assess. 1996;66: 217–233. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa6602_2 16367700

29. Kiesler DJ. The 1982 Interpersonal Circle: A taxonomy for complementarity in human transactions. Psychol Rev. 1983;90: 185–214. doi: 10.1037/0033-295x.90.3.185

30. Traupman EK, Smith TW, Uchino BN, Berg CA, Trobst KK, Costa PT Jr. Interpersonal Circumplex Octant, Control, and Affiliation Scales for the NEO-PI-R. Pers Individ Dif. 2009;47: 457–463. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2009.04.018 27840466

31. Russell JA, Mehrabian A. Approach-Avoidance and Affiliation as Functions of the Emotion-Eliciting Quality of an Environment. Environment and behavior. 1978;10: 355–387. doi: 10.1177/0013916578103005

32. Benjafield J, Muckenheim R. A further historicodevelopmental study of the interpersonal circumplex. Can J Behav Sci. 1989;21: 83. doi: 10.1037/h0079776

33. Boudreaux MJ, Ozer DJ, Oltmanns TF, Wright AGC. Development and validation of the Circumplex Scales of Interpersonal Problems. Psychol Assess. 2018;30: 594–609. doi: 10.1037/pas0000505 28627918

34. Myllyniemi R. The interpersonal circle and the emotional undercurrents of human sociability. In: Plutchik R, Conte HR, editors. Circumplex models of personality and emotions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 1997. pp. 271–295. doi: 10.1037/10261-012

35. Bakan D. The duality of human existence: An essay on psychology and religion. Oxford, England: Rand McNally; 1966.

36. Jones DN, Paulhus DL. Differentiating the Dark Triad within the interpersonal circumplex. In: Horowitz LM, Stephen Strack S, editors. Handbook of Interpersonal Psychology: Theory, Research, Assessment, and Therapeutic Interventions. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2011. pp. 249–269. doi: 10.1002/9781118001868

37. Wiggins JS. A psychological taxonomy of trait-descriptive terms: The interpersonal domain. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1979;37: 395. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.37.3.395

38. Barford KA, Zhao K, Smillie LD. Mapping the interpersonal domain: Translating between the Big Five, HEXACO, and Interpersonal Circumplex. Pers Individ Dif. 2015;86: 232–237. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.038

39. Gurtman MB. Interpersonal Circumplex. In: Zeigler-Hill V, Shackelford TK, editors. Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences. 2016. pp. 1–10. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_1233-1

40. Alden LE, Wiggins JS, Pincus AL. Construction of Circumplex Scales for the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems. J Pers Assess. 1990;55: 521–536. doi: 10.1080/00223891.1990.9674088 2280321

41. Jones DN, Paulhus DL. Introducing the short Dark Triad (SD3): a brief measure of dark personality traits. Assessment. 2014;21: 28–41. doi: 10.1177/1073191113514105 24322012

42. Yik M, Russell JA, Steiger JH. A 12-Point Circumplex Structure of Core Affect. Emotion. 2011;11: 705–731. doi: 10.1037/a0023980 21707162

43. Larsen JT, McGraw AP. Further evidence for mixed emotions. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2011;100: 1095–1110. doi: 10.1037/a0021846 21219075

44. Plutchik R, Conte HR. Circumplex Models of Personality and Emotions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 1997.

45. Ghaed SG, Gallo LC. Distinctions among agency, communion, and unmitigated agency and communion according to the interpersonal circumplex, Five-factor model, and social-emotional correlates. J Pers Assess. 2006;86: 77–88. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa8601_09 16436022

46. Remington NA, Fabrigar LR, Visser PS. Reexamining the circumplex model of affect. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2000;79: 286–300. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.79.2.286 10948981

47. Gurtman Michael B. and Pincus Aaron L. The circumplex model: methods and research applications. In: Schinka JA, Velicer WF, Weiner IB, editors. Research methods in psychology. Hoboken: Wilay; 2003. pp. 407–428.

48. Rubin DC, Talarico JM. A comparison of dimensional models of emotion: evidence from emotions, prototypical events, autobiographical memories, and words. Memory. 2009;17: 802–808. doi: 10.1080/09658210903130764 19691001

49. Widiger TA, Hagemoser S. Personality disorders and the interpersonal circumplex. In: Plutchik R, Conte HR, editors. Circumplex models of personality and emotions. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, xi; 1997. pp. 299–325. doi: 10.1037/10261-013

50. Markey PM, Funder DC, Ozer DJ. Complementarity of interpersonal behaviors in dyadic interactions. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2003;29: 1082–1090. doi: 10.1177/0146167203253474 15189605

51. McCrae RR, Costa PT Jr. The structure of interpersonal traits: Wiggins’s circumplex and the five-factor model. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1989;56: 586–595. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.56.4.586 2709308

52. Hofstee WK, de Raad B, Goldberg LR. Integration of the big five and circumplex approaches to trait structure. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1992;63: 146–163. Available:

53. Backstrom M, Larsson MR, Maddux RE. A structural validation of an inventory based on the Abridged Five Factor Circumplex Model (AB5C). J Pers Assess. 2009;91: 462–472. doi: 10.1080/00223890903088065 19672752

54. Vukasović T, Bratko D. Heritability of personality: A meta-analysis of behavior genetic studies. Psychol Bull. 2015;141: 769–785. doi: 10.1037/bul0000017 25961374

55. Allen TA, DeYoung CG. Personality Neuroscience and the Five Factor Model. In: Widiger TA, editor. The Oxford Handbook of the Five Factor Model. Oxford University Press; 2017. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199352487.013.26

56. McAdams DP. The five-factor model in personality: A critical appraisal. J Pers. 1992;60: 329–361. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00976.x 1635046

57. Block J. The Five-Factor Framing of Personality and Beyond: Some Ruminations. Psychol Inq. 2010;21: 2–25. doi: 10.1080/10478401003596626

58. Eysenck H. The biological basis of personality. Routledge; 2017.

59. Waller NG. Evaluating the structure of personality. In: Cloninger CR, editor. Personality and psychopathology. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association; 1999. pp. 155–197.

60. Block J. A contrarian view of the five-factor approach to personality description. Psychological bulletin. 1995;117: 187–215. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.117.2.187 7724687

61. Boyle GJ, Stankov L, Cattell RB. Measurement and Statistical Models in the Study of Personality and Intelligence. In: Saklofske DH, Zeidner M, editors. International Handbook of Personality and Intelligence. Boston, MA: Springer; 1995. pp. 417–446. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4757-5571-8_20

62. Quirin M, Meyer F, Heise N, Kuhl J, Küstermann E, Strüber D, et al. Neural correlates of social motivation: An fMRI study on power versus affiliation. Int J Psychophysiol. 2013;88: 289–295. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2012.07.003 22841755

63. Goodson JL. The vertebrate social behavior network: evolutionary themes and variations. Horm Behav. 2005;48: 11–22. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2005.02.003 15885690

64. O’Connell LA, Hofmann HA. The vertebrate mesolimbic reward system and social behavior network: a comparative synthesis. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519: 3599–3639. doi: 10.1002/cne.22735 21800319

65. Mehta PH, Jones AC, Josephs RA. The social endocrinology of dominance: basal testosterone predicts cortisol changes and behavior following victory and defeat. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2008;94: 1078–1093. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.94.6.1078 18505319

66. Feldman R. Oxytocin and social affiliation in humans. Horm Behav. 2012;61: 380–391. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2012.01.008 22285934

67. Casto KV, Edwards DA. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition. Horm Behav. 2016;82: 21–37. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2016.04.004 27103058

68. Mattan BD, Kubota JT, Cloutier J. How Social Status Shapes Person Perception and Evaluation: A Social Neuroscience Perspective. Perspect Psychol Sci. 2017;12: 468–507. doi: 10.1177/1745691616677828 28544863

69. Feldman R, Monakhov M, Pratt M, Ebstein RP. Oxytocin Pathway Genes: Evolutionary Ancient System Impacting on Human Affiliation, Sociality, and Psychopathology. Biol Psychiatry. 2016;79: 174–184. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.08.008 26392129

70. Princeton University. About WordNet. 2010.

71. Oxford University Press. Oxford Dictionary. Oxford University Press; 2017.

72. Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster Thesaurus. 2018.

73. Davis KL, Panksepp J. The Emotional Foundations of Personality: A Neurobiological and Evolutionary Approach. New York: W.W Norton; 2018.

74. Anderson C, John OP, Keltner D. The personal sense of power. J Pers. 2012;80: 313–344. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2011.00734.x 21446947

75. Côté S, Kraus MW, Cheng BH, Oveis C, Van der Löwe I, Lian H, et al. Social power facilitates the effect of prosocial orientation on empathic accuracy. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2011;101: 217. doi: 10.1037/a0023171 21463075

76. Keltner D. The Power Paradox: How We Gain and Lose Influence. Penguin; 2017.

77. Keltner D, Gruenfeld DH, Anderson C. Power, approach, and inhibition. Psychol Rev. 2003;110: 265–284. doi: 10.1037/0033-295x.110.2.265 12747524

78. Goodwin SA, Operario D, Fiske ST. Situational Power and Interpersonal Dominance Facilitate Bias and Inequality. J Soc Issues. 1998;54: 677–698. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.1998.tb01243.x

79. Ashton MC, Lee K, Goldberg LR. A Hierarchical Analysis of 1,710 English Personality-Descriptive Adjectives. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2004;87: 707–721. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.87.5.707 15535781

80. Allport GW, Odbert HS. Trait-names: A psycho-lexical study. Psychol Monogr. 1936;47: i–171. doi: 10.1037/h0093360

81. Norman WT. 2800 personality trait descriptors—normative operating characteristics for a university population. ERIC; 1967.

82. Dalkey N, Helmer O. An Experimental Application of the DELPHI Method to the Use of Experts. Manage Sci. 1963;9: 458–467. doi: 10.1287/mnsc.9.3.458

83. Nummenmaa L, Glerean E, Hari R, Hietanen JK. Bodily maps of emotions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111: 646–651. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1321664111 24379370

84. van Loon AM, van den Wildenberg WPM, van Stegeren AH, Ridderinkhof KR, Hajcak G. Emotional stimuli modulate readiness for action: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2010;10: 174–181. doi: 10.3758/CABN.10.2.174 20498342

85. Nogueira-Campos AA, de Oliveira LAS, Della-Maggiore V, Esteves PO, Rodrigues E de C, Vargas CD. Corticospinal excitability preceding the grasping of emotion-laden stimuli. PLoS One. 2014;9: e94824. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094824 24732961

86. Bowlby J. Attachment. London: Hogarth; 1969.

87. Du S, Tao Y, Martinez AM. Compound facial expressions of emotion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111: E1454–62. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1322355111 24706770

88. Susskind JM, Littlewort G, Bartlett MS, Movellan J, Anderson AK. Human and computer recognition of facial expressions of emotion. Neuropsychologia. 2007;45: 152–162. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.05.001 16765997

89. Russell JA, Fehr B. Relativity in the perception of emotion in facial expressions. J Exp Psychol Gen. 1987;116: 223. doi: 10.1037/0096-3445.116.3.223

90. Knutson B. Facial expressions of emotion influence interpersonal trait inferences. J Nonverbal Behav. 1996;20: 165–182. doi: 10.1007/BF02281954

91. Moeller SK, Lee EAE, Robinson MD. You never think about my feelings: interpersonal dominance as a predictor of emotion decoding accuracy. Emotion. 2011;11: 816–824. doi: 10.1037/a0022761 21517164

92. Hooke R. Lectures de Potentia Restitutiva, Or of Spring Explaining the Power of Springing Bodies. London: John Martyn; 1678.

93. Borsboom D, Cramer AOJ. Network analysis: an integrative approach to the structure of psychopathology. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2013;9: 91–121. doi: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050212-185608 23537483

94. Epskamp S, Maris GKJ, Waldorp LJ, Borsboom D. Network Psychometrics. In: Irwing P, Hughes D, and Booth T, editors. The Wiley Handbook of Psychometric Testing. New York: Wiley; 2018. pp. 953–986. doi: 10.1002/9781118489772

95. Stella M, Beckage NM, Brede M, De Domenico M. Multiplex model of mental lexicon reveals explosive learning in humans. Sci Rep. 2018;8: 2259. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-20730-5 29396497

96. De Deyne S, Kenett YN, Anaki D, Faust M, Navarro DJ. Large-scale network representations of semantics in the mental lexicon. In: Jones MN, editor. Big data in cognitive science. New York, NY: Routledge; 2016. pp. 174–202.

97. Gaume B, Venant F, Victorri B. Hierarchy in lexical organisation of natural languages. Hierarchy in natural and social sciences. 2006.

98. Polguère A. From Writing Dictionaries to Weaving Lexical Networks. International Journal of Lexicography. 2014;27: 396–418. doi: 10.1093/ijl/ecu017

99. Rosenblatt M. Remarks on Some Nonparametric Estimates of a Density Function. Ann Math Stat. 1956;27: 832–837. doi: 10.1214/aoms/1177728190

100. Parzen E. On Estimation of a Probability Density Function and Mode. Ann Math Stat. 1962;33: 1065–1076. doi: 10.1214/aoms/1177704472

101. Hunter JD. Matplotlib: A 2D Graphics Environment. Comput Sci Eng. 2007;9: 90–95. doi: 10.1109/MCSE.2007.55

102. Allison JA, Barrett JD, Birnbaum R, Brown DJ, Burke CS, Campbell JP, et al. The Oxford Handbook of Leadership. Rumsey MG, editor. New York: Oxford University Press; 2012. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195398793.001.0001

103. Bass BM, Bass R. The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Applications. New York: Free Press; 2008.

104. Kellerman B. Bad leadership: What it is, how it happens, why it matters. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business Press; 2004.

105. Australia. Crimes Act 1914 No. 12. 2017.

106. California. Penal Code. 1872.

107. NSW Australia. Crimes Act 1900 No 40. 2017.

108. International Committee of the Red Cross. Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. 1949.

109. New Zealand. Crimes Act 1961. 1961.

110. Texas. Penal Code. 1973.

111. Maples JL, Guan L, Carter NT, Miller JD. A test of the International Personality Item Pool representation of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and development of a 120-item IPIP-based measure of the five-factor model. Psychol Assess. 2014;26: 1070–1084. doi: 10.1037/pas0000004 24932643

112. Johnson JA. Measuring thirty facets of the Five Factor Model with a 120-item public domain inventory: Development of the IPIP-NEO-120. J Res Pers. 2014;51: 78–89. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2014.05.003

113. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-5. 5th ed. Washington, DC: Author; 2013.

114. World Health Organization. International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems. 11th ed. World Health Organization; 2018.

115. Eysenck HJ. Dimensions of personality: 16, 5 or 3?-Criteria for a taxonomic paradigm. Pers Individ Dif. 1991;12: 773–790. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(91)90144-z

116. van der Linden D, te Nijenhuis J, Bakker AB. The General Factor of Personality: A meta-analysis of Big Five intercorrelations and a criterion-related validity study. J Res Pers. 2010;44: 315–327. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2010.03.003

117. Saville DJ, Wood GR. Statistical Methods: The Geometric Approach. New York, NY: Springer; 1991. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4612-0971-3

118. Knuth DE, Moore RW. An analysis of alpha-beta pruning. Artif Intell. 1975;6: 293–326. doi: 10.1016/0004-3702(75)90019-3

Článek vyšel v časopise


2020 Číslo 1