Nutritional inadequacies in commercial vegan foods for dogs and cats
Rafael Vessecchi Amorim Zafalon aff001; Larissa Wünsche Risolia aff001; Thiago Henrique Annibale Vendramini aff001; Roberta Bueno Ayres Rodrigues aff001; Vivian Pedrinelli aff001; Fabio Alves Teixeira aff001; Mariana Fragoso Rentas aff001; Mariana Pamplona Perini aff001; Isabella Corsato Alvarenga aff002; Marcio Antonio Brunetto aff001
Působiště autorů: School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Pirassununga, Brazil aff001; Department of Grain Science and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America aff002
Vyšlo v časopise: PLoS ONE 15(1)
Kategorie: Research Article
The objective of this study was to evaluate the macronutrients composition, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and essential minerals content of all vegan foods for dogs and cats available in the Brazilian market, and to compare results with FEDIAF (2019) and AAFCO (2019) recommendations. Four vegan pet foods were assessed (three for dogs and one for cats). The comparisons were made in a descriptive manner. All foods met the minimum recommendations for macronutrients. Arachidonic acid was not reported in any food label. Regarding the FEDIAF recommendations, one food for dogs had low calcium, another had low potassium and a third had low sodium. The cat food presented potassium content lower than recommended. The Ca:P ratio did not meet the minimum recommendation of FEDIAF (2019) and AAFCO (2019) in any of the dog’s foods analyzed, and the cat food also did not present the minimum recommendation based on FEDIAF (2019). Copper concentrations exceeded the legal limit in all foods. Zinc concentrations exceeded this limit in two foods (one for dogs and one for cats) and iron levels exceeded the legal limit in one dog food. One of the dog foods did not meet the minimum recommendation for methionine and the cat food did not meet the minimum recommendation for arginine. In addition, when the amount of nutrients consumed by animals with low energy requirements was simulated, in addition to the same non-conformities described above, it was observed that the cat food does not meet the minimum recommended of protein and taurine in unit/Kg0.67. It was concluded that all foods analyzed had one or more nutrients below the recommended levels and some presented zinc and copper excess, therefore, these foods should not be recommended for dogs and cats, because dietary deficiencies found may lead to health risks for dogs and cats. Furthermore, manufacturers should review their formulations to ensure the nutritional adequacy of these foods.
Arginine – Cats – Diet – Dogs – Food – Methionine – Nutrients – Sulfates
1. Dodd AS, Cave NJ, Adolphe JL, et al. Plant-based (vegan) diets for pets: A survey of pet owner attitudes and feeding practices. PloS one 2019;14(1), e0210806. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0210806 30645644
2. IBOPE INTELIGÊNCIA—pesquisa de opinião pública sobre o vegetarianismo- JOB0416/2018 BRASIL.
3. Kienzle E, & Engelhard RA. Field study on the nutrition of vegetarian dogs and cats in Europe. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 2001; 23(9), 81–81.
4. AOAC. Official methods of analysis. 2006 (AOAC International, 2006).
5. Williams R. D. & Olmsted W. H. A biochemical method for determining indigestible residue (crude fiber) in feces: lignin, cellulose, and non-water soluble hemicelluloses. J. Biol. Chem. 1935; 108, 635–666.
6. Animal, I. S. O., and Vegetable Fats. "Oils-Preparation of Methyl Esters of Fatty Acids (method ISO 5509)." Geneva: International Organization for Standardization (1978).
7. Montaser A. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Washington D.C., EUA: Wiley-VCH, 1998.
8. Spitze AR, Wong DL, Rogers QR, et al. Taurine concentrations in animal feed ingredients; cooking influences taurine content. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2003; 87:251–262.
9. FEDIAF. Nutritional Guidelines for Complete and Complementary Pet Food for Cats and Dogs, 2019. (Fédération Européenne de l’Industrie des Aliments pour Animaux Familiers, 2019).
10. National Research Council. Nutrient requirements of dogs and cats. National Academies Press, 2006.
11. Association of American Feed Control Officials. AAFCO dog food nutrient profiles. In: 2019 official publication. Oxford, Ind: Association of American Feed Control Officials, 2019.
12. Parker VJ, Rudinsky AJ, Chew DJ. Vitamin D metabolism in canine and feline medicine. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2017, 250(11), 1259–1269. doi: 10.2460/javma.250.11.1259 28509634
13. Rivers JPW, Sinclair AJ & Crawford MA. Inability of the cat to desaturate essential fatty acids. Nature 1875; 258(5531), 171.
14. MacDonald ML, Anderson BC, Rogers QR, et al. Essential fatty acid requirements of cats: pathology of essential fatty acid deficiency. American journal of veterinary research 1984; 45(7), 1310–1317. 24049889
15. Pawlosky RJ, & Salem N Jr. Is dietary arachidonic acid necessary for feline reproduction. The Journal of nutrition 1996; 126(suppl_4), 1081S–1085S.
16. Gray CM, Sellon RK & Freeman LM. Nutritional adequacy of two vegan diets for cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2004; 225(11), 1670–1675. doi: 10.2460/javma.2004.225.1670 15626215
17. Davey GK, Spencer EA, Appleby PN et al. EPIC–Oxford: lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes in a cohort of 33 883 meat-eaters and 31 546 non meat-eaters in the UK. Public health nutrition 2003; 6(3), 259–268. doi: 10.1079/PHN2002430 12740075
18. Chiu JF, Lan SJ, Yang CY, et al. Long-term vegetarian diet and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Taiwanese women. Calcif Tissue Int 1997; 60:245–9. doi: 10.1007/pl00005812 9069160
19. Lau EMC, Kwok T, Woo J, Ho SC. Bone mineral density in Chinese elderly female vegetarians, vegans, lacto-vegetarians and omnivores. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998; 52:60–4. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1600516 9481534
20. Craig WJ. Health effects of vegan diets. The American journal of clinical nutrition 2009; 89(5), 1627S–1633S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736N 19279075
21. NAP RC & HAZEWINKEHL AW. Growth and skeletal development in the dog in relation to nutrition; a review. Veterinary Quarterly 1994; 1. 50–59.
22. Tomsa K, Glaus T, Hauser et al. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in six cats. Journal of small animal practice 1999; 40(11), 533–539. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.1999.tb03015.x 10649598
23. Svanberg G, Lindhe J, Hugoson A et al. Effect of nutritional hyperparathyroidism on experimental periodontitis in the dog. European Journal of Oral Sciences 1973; 81(2), 155–162.
24. Cook SD, Skinner HB, Haddad RJ. A quantitative histologic study of osteoporosis produced by nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in dogs. Clin Orthop 1983; 175:105–120.
25. Kawaguchi K, Braga IS III, Takahashi A, et al. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism occurring in a strain of German shepherd puppies. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research 1993; 41(2–4), 89–96. 8139162
26. Fornel-Thibaud P, Blanchard G, Escoffier-Chateau L et al. Unusual case of osteopenia associated with nutritional calcium and vitamin D deficiency in an adult dog. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 2007; 43(1), 52–60. doi: 10.5326/0430052 17209086
27. Freeman LM, Stern JA, Fries R et al. Diet-associated dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs: what do we know?. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2018; 253(11), 1390–1394. doi: 10.2460/javma.253.11.1390 30451613
28. Hayes KC. Taurine nutrition. Nutr Res Rev 1988; 1:99–113. doi: 10.1079/NRR19880009 19094361
29. Fascetti AJ, Reed JR, Rogers QR et al. Taurine deficiency in dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy: 12 cases (1997–2001). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2003; 223(8), 1137–1141. doi: 10.2460/javma.2003.223.1137 14584743
30. Kramer GA, Kittleson MD, Fox PR et al. Plasma taurine concentrations in normal dogs and in dogs with heart disease. Journal of veterinary internal medicine 1995; 9(4), 253–258. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.1995.tb01076.x 8523322
31. Bélanger MC, Ouellet M, Queney G et al. Taurine-deficient dilated cardiomyopathy in a family of golden retrievers. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 2005; 41(5), 284–291. doi: 10.5326/0410284 16141179
32. Kittleson MD, Keene B, Pion PD et al. Results of the multicenter spaniel trial (MUST): taurine‐and carnitine‐responsive dilated cardiomyopathy in American cocker spaniels with decreased plasma taurine concentration. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 1997; 11(4), 204–211. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.1997.tb00092.x 9298474
33. Backus RC et al. Taurine deficiency in Newfoundlands fed commercially available complete and balanced diets. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2003; 223.8: 1130–1136. doi: 10.2460/javma.2003.223.1130 14584742
34. Ko KS, Fascetti AJ. Dietary beet pulp decreases taurine status in dogs fed low protein diet. J Anim Sci Technol 2016; 58:29. doi: 10.1186/s40781-016-0112-6 27489723
35. Kim SW, Morris JG, Rogers QR. Dietary soybean protein decreases plasma taurine in cats. J Nutr 1995; 125:2831–2837. doi: 10.1093/jn/125.11.2831 7472663
36. Czarnecki GL and Baker DH. Urea cycle function in the dog with emphasis on the role of arginine. J. Nutr. 1984; 114:581–590. doi: 10.1093/jn/114.3.581 6699739
37. Morris JG. Nutritional and metabolic responses to arginine in carnivores. J. utr. 1985; 115:524–531.
38. Morris JG & Rogers QR. Ammonia intoxication in the near-adult cat as a result of a dietary deficiency of arginine. Science 1978; 199(4327), 431–432. doi: 10.1126/science.619464 619464
39. Rogers R. and Phang JM. Deficiency of pyrroline-5-carboxylale synthase in the intestinal mucosa of the cat. J. Nutr. 1985; 115: 146–150. doi: 10.1093/jn/115.1.146 3965666
40. Kirk CA, Debraekeleer J, Armstrong PJ. Normal cats. In: Hand MS, Thatcher CD, Remillard RL, et al, eds. Small animal clinical nutrition. 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2000; 291–347.
41. Loureiro BA, Garcia CA, Peres FM et al. Markers of protein metabolism in adult cats fed diets with different protein and starch contentes. in Proceedings. 22nd Congress of the European Society Of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition 2018; 123–123.
42. Pedrinelli V, Porsani MYH, Lima DM et al. Predictive equations of maintenance energy requirement of healthy and chronically ill adult dogs. in Proceedings. 22nd Congress of the European Society Of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition 2018; 236–236.
43. Kanakubo K, Fascetti AJ & Larsen JA. Assessment of protein and amino acid concentrations and labeling adequacy of commercial vegetarian diets formulated for dogs and cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2015; 247(4), 385–392. doi: 10.2460/javma.247.4.385 26225610
44. Wakefield LA, Shofer FS, & Michel KE. (2006). Evaluation of cats fed vegetarian diets and attitudes of their caregivers. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2006; 229(1), 70–73. doi: 10.2460/javma.229.1.70 16817716
45. Rentschler LA, Hirschberger LL & Stipanuk MH. Response of the kitten to dietary taurine depletion: effects on renal reabsorption, bile acid conjugation and activities of enzymes involved in taurine synthesis. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. B, Comparative biochemistry 1986; 84(3), 319–325. doi: 10.1016/0305-0491(86)90084-2 3743026
46. Morris JG, Rogers QR, Kim SW, et al. Dietary taurine requirement of cats is determined by microbial degradation of taurine in the gut. Vet Clin Nutr 1994; 1:118–127.
47. Morris JH and Rogers QR. The metabolic basis for the taurine requirement of cats. Taurine 1992. Springer, Boston, MA. 33–44.
48. Pion PD, Sanderson SL, Kittleson MD. The effectiveness of taurine and levocarnitine in dogs with heart disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1998; 28:1495–1514. doi: 10.1016/s0195-5616(98)50134-9 10098250
49. Hickman MA, Bruss ML, Morris JG, et al. Dietary protein source (soybean vs. casein) and taurine status affect kinetics of the enterohepatic circulation of taurocholic acid in cats. J Nutr 1992; 122:1019–1028. doi: 10.1093/jn/122.4.1019 1552356
50. Backus RC, Rogers QR, Rosenquist GL, et al. Diets causing taurine depletion in cats substantially elevate postprandial plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) concentration. J Nutr 1995; 125:2650–2657. doi: 10.1093/jn/125.10.2650 7562102
51. Schaffer SW, Jong CJ, Ramila KC et al. Physiological roles of taurine in heart and muscle. Journal of Biomedical Science 2010; 17(1), S2.
52. Schaffer SW, Shimada-Takaura K, Jong CJ et al. Impaired energy metabolism of the taurine-deficient heart. Amino Acids 2016; 48(2), 549–558. doi: 10.1007/s00726-015-2110-2 26475290
53. Novotny MJ, Hogan PM & Flannigan G. Echocardiographic evidence for myocardial failure induced by taurine deficiency in domestic cats. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 1994; 58(1), 6. 8143255
54. Hayes KC, Carey RE and Schmidt SY. Retinal degeneration associated with taurine deficiency in the cat. Science 1975; 188.4191: 949–951. doi: 10.1126/science.1138364 1138364
55. Barnett KC and Burger IH. Taurine deficiency retinopathy in the cat. Journal of Small Animal Practice 1980; 21.10: 521–534. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.1980.tb01354.x 7464066
56. Hayes KC. Nutritional problems in cats: taurine deficiency and vitamin A excess. The Canadian Veterinary Journal 1982; 23.1: 2. 7039812
57. Imaki H, Moretz RC, Wisniewski HM et al. Feline maternal taurine deficiency: effects on retina and tapetum of the offspring. Developmental neuroscience 1986; 8(3), 160–181. doi: 10.1159/000112251 3769817
58. Jacobson SG, Kemp CM, Borruat FX et al. Rhodopsin topography and rod-mediated function in cats with the retinal degeneration of taurine deficiency. Experimental eye research 1987; 45(4), 481–490. doi: 10.1016/s0014-4835(87)80059-3 3428381
59. Sturman JÁ and Jeffrey MM. High dietary taurine effects on feline tissue taurine concentrations and reproductive performance. The Journal of nutrition 1992; 122.1: 82–88. doi: 10.1093/jn/122.1.82 1729475
60. Neirinck K, Istasse L, Gabriel A, Van Eenaeme C, Bienfait JM. Amino acid composition and digestibility of four protein sources for dogs. The Journal of nutrition 1991, 121(suppl_11), S64–S65.
61. Funaba M, Matsumoto C, Matsuki K, Gotoh K, Kaneko M, Iriki T, et al. Comparison of corn gluten meal and meat meal as a protein source in dry foods formulated for cats. American journal of veterinary research 2002, 63(9), 1247–1251. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.2002.63.1247 12224854
62. Bednar GE, Murray SM, Patil AR, Flickinger EA, Merchen NR, & Fahey GC Jr. Selected animal and plant protein sources affect nutrient digestibility and fecal characteristics of ileally cannulated dogs. Archives of Animal Nutrition 2000, 53(2), 127–140. doi: 10.1080/17450390009381942 10849867
63. Hill RC, Burrows CF, Ellison GW, Bauer JE. The effect of texturized vegetable protein from soy on nutrient digestibility compared to beef in cannulated dogs. Journal of animal science 2001, 79(8), 2162–2171. doi: 10.2527/2001.7982162x 11518225
64. Morris JG. Cats discriminate between cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol. Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition 2002; 86:229–238. doi: 10.1046/j.1439-0396.2002.00379.x 15379909
65. Brito Galvao JF, Nagode LA, Schenck PA et al. Calcitriol, calcidiol, parathyroid hormone, and fibroblast growth factor‐23 interactions in chronic kidney disease. Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care 2013; 23(2), 134–162. doi: 10.1111/vec.12036 23566108
66. Liu PT, Stenger S, Li H et al. Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response. Science 2006; 3111:770–1773.
67. Motlagh BM, Ahangaran NA & Froushani SMA. Calcitriol modulates the effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on macrophage functions. Iranian journal of basic medical sciences 2015; 18(7), 672. 26351558
68. Rodriguez-Cortes A, Martori C, Martinez-Florez A et al. Canine Leishmaniasis Progression is Associated with Vitamin D Deficiency. Scientific reports 2017; 7:3346. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-03662-4 28611427
69. Pludowski P, Holick MF, Pilz S et al. Vitamin D effects on musculoskeletal health, immunity, autoimmunity, cardiovascular disease, cancer, fertility, pregnancy, dementia and mortality—a review of recent evidence. Autoimmunity reviews 2013; 12:976–989. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2013.02.004 23542507
70. Laws EJ, Kathrani A, Harcourt-Brown TR et al. 25‐Hydroxy vitamin D3 serum concentration in dogs with acute polyradiculoneuritis compared to matched controls. Journal of Small Animal Practice 2018; 59:222–227. doi: 10.1111/jsap.12791 29171025
71. Kunakornsawat S, Rosol TJ, Capen CC et al. Effects of 1, 25 (OH) 2D3, EB1089, and analog V on PTHrP production, PTHrP mRNA expression and cell growth in SCC 2/88. Anticancer research 2001; 21(5), 3355–3363. 11848494
72. Kunakornsawat S, Rosol TJ, Capen CC et al. Effects of 1, 25 (OH) 2D3, 25OHD3, and EB1089 on cell growth and Vitamin D receptor mRNA and 1α-hydroxylase mRNA expression in primary cultures of the canine prostate. The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology 2004; 89, 409–412. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2004.03.009 15225811
73. Rassnick KM, Muindi JP, Johnson CS et al. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of combined calcitriol and cisplatin in dogs with spontaneously occurring tumors. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology 2008; 62:881–891. doi: 10.1007/s00280-008-0678-x 18246349
74. Malone EK, Rassnick KM, Wakshlag JJ et al. Calcitriol (1, 25‐dihydroxycholecalciferol) enhances mast cell tumor chemotherapy and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor activity in vitro and has single‐agent activity against spontaneously occurring canine mast cell tumors. Veterinary and comparative oncology 2010; 8:209–220. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5829.2010.00223.x 20691028
75. Jaffey J, Amorim J & DeClue AE. In vitro effects of vitamin D on phagocytosis, TLR4, and cytokine production. J Vet Intern Med 2017; 31(4), 775.
76. Jaffey JÁ, Amorim J, Declue AE. Effect of calcitriol on in vitro whole blood cytokine production in critically ill dogs. The Veterinary Journal 2018, v. 236, p. 31–36. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2018.04.010 29871746
77. Dirksen K, Fieten H. Canine copper-associated hepatitis. Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice. 2017 May 1;47(3):631–44.
Článek vyšel v časopise
2020 Číslo 1
- Nový typ fixace umožňuje pravidelnou hygienu končetiny i pobyt ve vodě
- Metamizol jako analgetikum první volby: kdy, pro koho, jak a proč?
- Není statin jako statin aneb praktický přehled rozdílů jednotlivých molekul
- Pregabalin je účinné léčivo s příznivým bezpečnostním profilem pro pacienty s neuropatickou bolestí
- Nedostatek hořčíku se projevuje u stále více lidí